The European Influence
The arrival of the Europeans changed the way of life of the Cree and Ojibwe
Developments such as fur trade, missionary activity, the signing of treaties, transportation, extraction of resources (mining, forestry, hydro-electric power) and tourism brought many people to northern Ontario.
Traditional economic activities were changed by the market type economy of the fur trade.
The social and family bonds of the extended family kin-groups were changed by the European concept of the smaller nuclear family.
Individual rights were stressed at the expense of group rights.
Education also changed. Instead of education being the reponsibility of the kin-group, it moved now to mirrored European societies where education was provided by the government in schools.
The extraction of natural resources was responsible for the establishment of villages, town, and cities across Northern Ontario in the traditional territories of the Anishnawbe people.
Pressure was put on Indian people to discard their traditional way of earning a living from a foraging economy and replace it with the Euro-Canadian wage economy.
However without proper education Indian people could not obtain part-time or seasonal employment.