Glossary

Accused or defendant: An individual charged with a criminal offence and subject to a court hearing or trial. An accused or defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty in a court of law.
Source: Grand dictionnaire terminologique

Archambault Report: A Royal Commission chaired by Mr. Justice Joseph Archambault tabled a major report in 1938 dealing with various aspects of Canada’s prison system. The report condemned prisoner abuse, found that inmates had very high reoffending rates and proposed a range of measures aimed at reducing the number of repeat offenders through rehabilitation. The report also called for the creation of a prison commission to supervise the management of penitentiaries.
Source: Correctional Service of Canada

Caulking or oakum: Loosely twisted hemp or flax fibers used in particular for sealing boat joints.
Source: Wikipedia

Concealment (of stolen goods): Receiving and keeping goods obtained by others in the commission of an offence or a crime.
Source: Petit Robert dictionary (translation)

Counseling: Psychological or social guidance designed to help individuals overcome adjustment or psychological problems that keep them from dealing effectively with a given situation.
Source: Grand dictionnaire terminologique

Crime of lese-majesty: An offence committed against the ruler or supreme power of a state.
Source: Petit Robert dictionary (translation)

Detainee: Unlike a defendant, who is awaiting trial, a detainee is serving a prison sentence.

Forgery: The act of making false coins or bank notes.
Source: Petit Robert dictionary (translation)

Industrial school: Industrial schools were created in 1869 by the Federal Government to prevent juvenile delinquency. They took in abandoned, vagrant children under 14 that needed protection because they had no means of subsistence or their father was in jail, or children considered rebellious or uncontrollable. These institutions were responsible for raising and educating the children who were sent there.
Source: L'évolution de la protection de l'enfance au Québec : des origines à nos jours / sous la direction de Renée Joyal, Sainte-Foy : Presses de l'Université du Québec, 2000.

Insurgency: An organized revolt against a government.
Source: Petit Robert dictionary (translation)

Jacket: An article of clothing worn as part of a uniform.
Source: Petit Robert dictionary (translation)

Life sentence: A life sentence is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, often for most or even all of the criminal's remaining life
Source: Wikipedia

Neoclassical architecture: An architectural movement from the mid-18th century to the early 19th century exhibiting Greco-Roman features: columns, pediments, harmonious proportions, porticos.
Source: Wikipedia

Palladian: Style of architecture inspired by the Italian architect Andrea Palladio. Palladianism is characterized by geometrical forms seeking to create a harmony of volumes. It borrows elements from Roman architecture: porticos, cupolas and galleries of columns. It’s a style without much ornamentation.
Source: Wikipedia

Parole: A conditional release of an offender. In Canada, most offenders in federal penitentiaries serve only part of their sentences in prison. They’re allowed to serve the remainder in the community, subject http://www.csc-scc.gc.ca/text/faits/03-eng.shtml specific conditions and under the supervision of professional staff from the Correctional Service of Canada.
Source: Correctional Service of Canada

Patriotes: Name given, starting in 1827, to the Parti Canadien and the popular movement that contributed to the rebellions of 1837-1838 in Lower Canada. Led mainly by members of the liberal professions and small merchants, this party found widespread support among farmers, labourers and tradesmen. Although predominantly Francophone, it attracted an Anglophone minority. Its most famous leaders included Louis-Joseph Papineau, Jean-Olivier Chénier and Wolfred Nelson.
Source: The Canadian Encyclopedia

Pediment: In classical architecture, a triangular-shaped ornament sitting on top of a building, above an entrance or a window.
Source: Wikipedia

Penitentiary: An institution where prison sentences are served, and “penance is made”. Within the Canadian correctional system, since 1867, federal penitentiaries have been used to hold prisoners serving sentences of two years or more.
Source: Correctional Service of Canada

Private charities: Institutions engaged in relief of the needy.
Source: Petit Robert dictionary (translation)

Reform school: Reform schools were created by the Federal Government in 1869. These institutions were mandated to rehabilitate young delinquents. They held children older than 7 and younger than 16 years of age found guilty of an offence that could warrant a prison sentence; later on, youngsters considered “incorrigible” and young offenders awaiting trial were also sent to reform school.
Source: La gestion de la déviance des filles et les institutions du Bon Pasteur a Montréal (1869-1912). Thèse présentée par Véronique Strimelle à la Faculté des Études supérieures en vue de l’obtention du grade de Philosophiae Doctor (PH-D), Université de Montréal, École de criminologie, 1998.

Repressive: Intended as a way to force someone to obey the law.
Source: Petit Robert dictionary (translation)

Rotunda: A round building.
Source: Petit Robert dictionary (translation)

Stocks: A wooden frame with holes for locking the feet and hands of offenders, used as a means of public punishment.
Source: Petit Robert dictionary (translation)