Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Social Studies

Lesson Title: Wolastoqiyik, Malecite, or Maliseet

Lesson Description: Provide students with an understanding of the culture and experiences of Wolastoqiyik. Students will explore the factors that contributed to historical and contemporary perceptions of Wolastoqiyik and examine the consequences of differing world views.

Time Required: 1 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: analyse the political challenges and opportunities that may affect the future for Wolastoqiyik: examine issues related to Wolastoqiyik autonomy and self-government  analyse the factors that contribute to the perception of self and the development of a world view  evaluate group, institutional, and media influences on people and society in both historical and contemporary settings  evaluate the causes and consequences of differing world views  an Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Social Studies

Lesson Title: Wolastoqiyik, Malecite, or Maliseet

Lesson Description: Provide students with an understanding of the culture and experiences of Wolastoqiyik. Students will explore the factors that contributed to historical and contemporary perceptions of Wolastoqiyik and examine the consequences of differing world views.

Time Required: 1 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • analyse the political challenges and opportunities that may affect the future for Wolastoqiyik: examine issues related to Wolastoqiyik autonomy and self-government 
  • analyse the factors that contribute to the perception of self and the development of a world view 
  • evaluate group, institutional, and media influences on people and society in both historical and contemporary settings 
  • evaluate the causes and consequences of differing world views 
  • analyse cases and personal values regarding stereotyping, discrimination, and conformity and how they affect individuals and groups 
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Views of a People content

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Impart the following using resources indicated:

  1. Wolastoqiyik way of life prior to contact was closely connected to Mother Earth and Father Sky. The teachings of the sacred Medicine Wheel guided their lives. The teachings are more egalitarian in nature with the Medicine Wheel representing the interrelation of all people and things. Wolastoqiyik had many ceremonies for different events in their lives representing the interrelation of all people and all of creation. 
  2. Wolastoqiyik respect for the natural environment and resourcefulness is demonstrated through the construction of items using natural materials, such as birchbark for canoes and containers, hides for footwear and clothing, trees and alders for shelter and furniture, etc. 
  3. Some of the ceremonies celebrated are for the same events as non-Aboriginals for example, a marriage or ceremony for the dead. However, they also have other practices for natural occurrences like solstices, equinox, solar and lunar eclipses to name a few, which show their connection to the Earth and Space. Other ceremonies such as the Sweatlodge and smudging with sage or sweetgrass, cleanse the mind, body and spirit. 
  4. When meetings were held often a Talking Stick or Eagle Feather was passed around so that all members of the community could offer their opinion on a particular discussion. And great pride was taken in Wolastoqiyik stories. Oral history was the way in which the knowledge was passed from generation to generation. The knowledge of the land is evident in the Wolastoqiyik names for various landscapes as illustrated in the story, Koluskap and the Giant Beaver (see Stories in the Oral Tradition Learning Object). 
  5. Post-European contact influence can be seen in some stories. The story, Koluskap Frees the Water, is told slightly differently than a recording from Gabe Paul by anthropologist Frank Speck in 1917. Gabe Paul’s story was told as the origin story for Wolastoq and the surrounding water systems. An excerpt of the Gabe Paul story can be found below in Section 4. Have students read both stories, compare the differences and similarities between the two stories, and discuss possible reasons why the story has changed so much in 90 years: different storytellers, different styles, changes in language, translation of stories, outside non-Aboriginal influences, opposition to the mystery and spirituality of the stories, possible alterations by non-Aboriginals to have an affect on land claims and other treaty rights, etc. 
  6. The influence of non-Aboriginals on First Nations is significant. Have students research and discuss the words Malecite, Maliseet and Wolastoqiyik. Note how the words Malecite and Maliseet came to be associated with Wolastoqiyik. 
  7. Churches also played a role in efforts to assimilate Aboriginal cultures. Catholic influence was very visible on the First Nation communities and in the Residential Schools. Wolastoqiyik children taught by the nuns at Neqotkuk (Tobique First Nation) often tell stories of being punished for speaking their own language, as well as preferential treatment for Wolastoqiyik children who had lighter complexions than some of the other children. (1) These students were taught to feel ashamed of their culture. Have students listen to the audio comments of Mr. and Mrs. Stewart Bernard and examine the written form of the Wolastoqiyik language. Discuss how and why Wolastoqiyik were made to feel that they needed to hide their nationality and language in order to have a better opportunity to be employed. 
  8. A manuscript, The Tobique Reserve, compiled by Daniel F. Johnson, provides addresses to the provincial governor dating back to 1841 regarding Neqotkuk (Tobique First Nation). In these addresses, Wolastoqiyik are seeking assistance from the governor in dealing with squatters who refused to pay land rental to the community. It is evident that help for the community was only received from the government if it was mentioned in the addresses that the monies acquired would go to the building of the church. Have students examine the image of Neqotkuk and note the church in the photo and the large building to the left of the church which was for the priest and nuns. 
  9. There were also directives from the Lieutenant Governor to educate Wolastoqiyik as Christians. The following is an excerpt from The Tobique Reserve: “Teachers have been sent out to the West Indies who have formed training schools in which children of every class and denomination are now receiving religious and general instructions and His Excellency thinks that schools in this place may be formed” (pg. 3). Neqotkuk was not the only community to face this new assimilation to the Christian way of life. 
  10. Community members were often treated as if they were less then human by non-Aboriginals. When children were sent to Shubenacadie Residential School, many were automatically de-loused even if they did not have lice. That was the smallest of horrors children faced at the hands of these servants of God. Have students research Residential Schools of the Atlantic Provinces for more information. 
  11. Those who did not hide their nationality faced racial discrimination from neighbouring communities as well. When “reservations” were created for Wolastoqiyik, it was to allow European expansion of settlements within Wolastoqey land. English authorities forced Wolastoqiyik to settle in small pockets of land and subsequently claimed the vast Wolastoqey land as their own. However, even after the “reserves” were set up, land was still lost for which claims are still being fought for in courts today. The colonizers of land near the “reserves” also looked down upon Wolastoqiyik because among other things, the people were not robbing the land for all of its resources. From the European perspective, the respectful Aboriginal use of the land and the non-exploitation of its resources indicated a primitive society. 
  12. The federal government introduced the “Indian Act” to control every aspect of the lives of Aboriginal people across Canada. It outlawed Aboriginal ceremonies, destroyed traditional political systems of Aboriginal societies, and gave the federal authorities the legal means to adopt and force assimilation policies for Aboriginal people. The Indian Act emerged from section 91 (24) of the BNA Act that gave the federal government responsibility over “Indian affairs”. But even within the Indian Act, First Nations face many issues. The biggest problem created by the Indian Act was the loss of status by many Aboriginal women who had married a non-Aboriginal. However, if an Aboriginal man married a non-Aboriginal, their wives and any children she had from a previous marriage gained status under the Act. In the 1970s, Aboriginal women throughout Canada came together and spoke out against this provision, section 12 (1) (b)”, of the Indian Act. 
  13. As part of the discussion, have students explore the origins of the Indian Act, the legal definitions of status and non-status, community administration and the language of disharmony that is reinforced in the act. Discuss the language of harmony and the usage of appropriate language and terms. 
  14. In 1977, Sandra Lovelace Nicholas with strong support from Neqotkuk Elder women and other concerned women of the community, decided that she would bring her case to the United Nations since all judicial avenues were taken and lost in Canada. A ruling was finally made in 1981 in favour of the Aboriginal women but it would take the Canadian government until 1985 to actually change the Indian Act. Due to the successful efforts of Neqotkuk women at the International Court of the United Nations, the Canadian government was forced to change the Indian Act by repealing section 12 (1) (b) of the Indian Act. Bill C-31 was passed by the House of Commons to reinstate Aboriginal women and their children who lost their status. To this day there are some problems with the changes. For her efforts, Sandra Lovelace Nicholas was made a Senator in 2005. 
  15. These are a few issues that Wolastoqiyik have faced over the years; however, they have survived here since time immemorial and will continue to survive.

Assignment:
Based upon the points above, content from the Views of a People Learning Object, and their own additional research, have students compose a 500 word essay that addresses the following questions:

  • In what ways are Wolastoqiyik connections to nature demonstrated?
    - ceremonies
    - knowledge of the landscape
    - respect for the natural environment and its resources
    - strong oral history, storytelling tradition to impart knowledge and wisdom 
  • How did the world view of non-Aboriginals affect Wolastoqiyik following European contact?
    - changes to oral histories/stories
    - terminology (Wolastoqiyik, Malecite, Maliseet)
    - assimilation through the Church, restrictions on language, Residential Schools
    - the Indian Act 
  • What is the significance of section 12 (1) (b) of the Indian Act and Bill C-31?
    - sexually discriminatory
    - contributed to the process of assimilation
    - role of Sandra Lovelace Nicholas
    - change to the law and the continued discussion surrounding its provisions illustrates a re-emergence of the Aboriginal world view

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
Use standard performance-based assessment tools. Recommended criteria:

  • demonstrate an understanding of the political challenges and opportunities that may affect Canada’s future by examining issues related to Aboriginal autonomy and self-government 
  • demonstrate an understanding of the causes and consequences of differing world views 
  • demonstrate an understanding of the cases and personal values regarding stereotyping, discrimination, and conformity and how they affect individuals and groups

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Supplementary Resources:
Johnson, Daniel F. The Tobique Reserve.
Speck, Frank G. “Malecite Tales.” The Journal of American Folklore 30, 18 (October-December 1917): 479-485.
Aglebe’m…[a monstrous frog] kept back all the water in the world; so that rivers stopped flowing, and lakes dried up, and the people everywhere began dying of thirst. As a last resort, they sent a messenger to him to ask him to give the people water; but he refused, and gave the messenger only a drink from the water in which he washed. But this was not enough to satisfy the thirst of even one… At last a great man was sent to Aglebe’m to beg him to release the water for the people. Aglebe’m refused, saying that he needed it himself to lie in. Then a messenger felled a tree, so that it fell on top of the monster and killed him. The body of this tree became the main river… and the branches became the tributary branches of the river… while the leaves became the ponds at the heads of these streams… (Tale of the origins of the Saint John River, told by Gabe Paul of Pilick, and recorded by Speck 1917:480-481).

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

1. Marie Perley in conversation with a Neqotkuk Elder.
© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9/10

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Is a picture worth a 1000 words?

Lesson Description: Beginning with analyzing images from their personal lives, and then with images from Views of a People Learning Object, the students learn to bring several strategies to interpreting a photograph.

Time Required: 2 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: respond critically to a variety of print and media texts  demonstrate an awareness that texts reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions make inferences, draw conclusions, and make supported responses to content, form and structure  use writing and other ways of representing to extend ideas and experiences  reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes  consistently use the conventions of written language in final products  gain a grea Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9/10

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Is a picture worth a 1000 words?

Lesson Description: Beginning with analyzing images from their personal lives, and then with images from Views of a People Learning Object, the students learn to bring several strategies to interpreting a photograph.

Time Required: 2 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • respond critically to a variety of print and media texts 
  • demonstrate an awareness that texts reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions
  • make inferences, draw conclusions, and make supported responses to content, form and structure 
  • use writing and other ways of representing to extend ideas and experiences 
  • reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes 
  • consistently use the conventions of written language in final products 
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to the internet, 2 personal pictures from each student and Views of a People content

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Lesson 1

  1. The night before, the student will be assigned to bring in two pictures of themselves from home. The first picture will be a traditional "head shot" school picture; the second their favourite picture of himself/herself 
  2. At the beginning of the class gather the pictures and place them in two piles, one pile of the school head shots; the, second will be "favourite photos" 
  3. In a random fashion, distribute the school picture with a handout titled "Photo Journal #1". Handout should include space for the photograph in top left corner, the following three questions and space to respond:
    The lifestyle of the person in this picture is like…
    The values of the person in this picture are…
    The personality of the person in this picture can be described as… 
  4. Hand one or two pieces of tape and have them stick the picture in the box 
  5. They are then to spend about ten-fifteen minutes writing about the following topics: values, lifestyle and personality of the person in the picture 
  6. Collect the first group of pictures 
  7. Distribute the second set of pictures - again in a random fashion 
  8. Distribute a second handout titled "Photo Journal #2" with the same layout as #1 
  9. As in previous exercise, adhere the picture to the box and write about values, lifestyle and personality 
  10. Return both pictures to their owner 
  11. After the students have read the comments of their peers, they are to write on the third handout, "On Reflection", how accurate the opinions of others were about each picture. Handout should include the following information, questions and space for students to write answers:
    Read the comments that your peers made on the two pictures you submitted. Answer the following questions and make sure to use full sentences, and take note of punctuation, spelling and grammar. Each new idea should start with a new paragraph.
    1. How well did the pictures reflect my values, personality and lifestyle? 2. Were the observations of my peers accurate. If not, in what way were my peers mislead about me based on the picture?
    3. What conclusions can you draw about the power of pictures to give a right or wrong impression of a person or situation? 
  12. The student is to identify what is accurate and what is not 
  13. Finally, students are to conclude the strengths and limitations of photographs as an accurate document of personal values, lifestyle and personalities

Lesson 2

  1. Review the ideas concluded from the Reflection Journal (3-5 minutes)
  2. Remainder of class - Introduce the topic of perception of Wolastoqiyik and how they can be perceived in photographs 
  3. Taking the knowledge they now have from their own experience, invite the students to look critically at the images found in the Views of a People Learning Object and then do the following assignment:

True Views of a People

  1. Select two pictures that they feel reveal Wolastoqiyik like a school photo: posed, perfect lighting, contrived expression, conventional clothing 
  2. Find 3-5 aspects from each image that helped you come to that conclusion 
  3. Write a paragraph for each image explaining your analysis 
  4. Chose images that you feel portray Wolastoqiyik in the same spontaneous, accurate and realistic manner "as your favourite picture" 
  5. As above, for each image select 3-5 details from the picture that support your choice 
  6. Students are to make sure that they have identified the image they are discussing by referring to it by its title

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
Student should be graded by the teacher on a rubric similar to the following scale:

Description

  • Makes a complete and detailed description of the photograph
  • Makes a good description of the photo
  • Makes a basic description of photograph
  • Descriptions are not detailed or complete.

Analysis

  • Accurately describes several dominant impressions and accurately relates how they are used by the artist to reinforce the theme, meaning, mood, or feeling of the artwork.
  • Accurately describes a couple of impressions and principles used by the artist and accurately relates how these are used by the artist to reinforce the theme, meaning, mood, or feeling of the artwork.
  • Describes some impressions, but has difficulty describing how these relate to the meaning or feeling of the artwork.
  • Has trouble picking out the dominant impressions

Interpretation

  • Forms a somewhat reasonable hypothesis about the symbolic or metaphorical meaning and is able to support this with evidence from the photograph.
  • Student identifies the literal meaning of the work.
  • Student can relate how the work makes him/her feel personally.
  • Student finds it difficult to interpret the meaning of the photograph.

Evaluation

  • Uses multiple criteria to judge the photograph, such as composition, expression, creativity, design, communication of ideas.
  • Uses 1-2 criteria to judge the photograph.
  • Tries to use objective criteria to judge artwork, but does not apply the criteria accurately.
  • Evaluates work as good or bad based on personal taste.
  • Responses to the three questions on Photo Journals #1 and #2 are worth 3 points each 
  • Responses to the three questions for On Reflection handout are worth 5 marks each
  • Bonus 5 marks if they bring in their pictures

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Teacher Generated Resources: All of the teacher-generated resources contributed to support this lesson are available for download by clicking on the link(s) below:

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php 
http://rubistar.4teachers.org  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

Section Four: Additional Information

Modifications: You may wish to give students additional class time to finish the writing if they are struggling writers. This lesson uses a basic rubric from rubistar-analysis of a piece of artwork with the wording changed to suit this project. For the students that do not bring in pictures, group a few to the same pictures.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Historical Perceptions – Misconceptions, Stereotypes, and Bias

Lesson Description: Students will examine misconceptions held by themselves as well as the media as regards First Nations communities

Time Required: 2 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: examine others’ ideas and synthesize what is helpful to clarify and expand on their own understanding  ask discerning questions to acquire, interpret, analyze, and evaluate ideas and information  articulate their understanding of the ways in which information texts are constructed for particular purposes  make informed personal responses to increasingly challenging print and media texts and reflect on their responses  make connections between their own values, beliefs, and cultures and those reflected in literary and media texts Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Historical Perceptions – Misconceptions, Stereotypes, and Bias

Lesson Description: Students will examine misconceptions held by themselves as well as the media as regards First Nations communities

Time Required: 2 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • examine others’ ideas and synthesize what is helpful to clarify and expand on their own understanding 
  • ask discerning questions to acquire, interpret, analyze, and evaluate ideas and information 
  • articulate their understanding of the ways in which information texts are constructed for particular purposes 
  • make informed personal responses to increasingly challenging print and media texts and reflect on their responses 
  • make connections between their own values, beliefs, and cultures and those reflected in literary and media texts 
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: 
Access to Views of a People content
Vocabulary templates (Vocabulary activity for terms: stereotype, assumption and bias)
Teachers resource 1: definitions for stereotype, bias and assumption
Exit slips

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Lesson 1

  1. Create master vocabulary templates for the terms: stereotype, assumption and bias. Templates for each term should include a section each for definition, examples, and images 
  2. Create teacher resources with definitions of stereotype, bias and assumption 
  3. Provide each student with copies of the three templates. After reviewing the directions, have each student complete the graphic organizers, determining prior knowledge and creating familiarity with the terms stereotype, bias and assumption. 
  4. Preview the terms, ensuring that each student understands the terms.
  5. In small groups of 3-5 students, have students create a list of stereotypes and assumptions as regards First Nations people and communities. This may be divided so that some groups consider stereotypes as regards First Nations people, while others consider those applying to First Nations communities. 
  6. Review the lists created as a whole class, making any additions generated through class discussion. 
  7. Have students complete an activity Exit Slip that includes the student name, date and class along with space to note the three definitions and comments about the activity 
  8. Collect Exit Slips when completed

Lesson 2

  1. Set induction: Have students complete a quick write about the visual images they have encountered that depict First Nations people and communities – these may not always be accurate or truthful and likely will be based on images from the media. 
  2. ask for volunteers to share their writing, discussing how these images may have come into existence. Students should be able to grasp that many of our stereotypical images associated with First Nations people are not accurate, and often are harmful. Discuss in depth the harmful affects of misconceptions, stereotypes and biases.
  3. using the Views of a People Learning Object, have students examine the various images and any misleading perceptions that are illustrated. What, if any biases exist in the images and documents?
  4. encourage students to explore the internet for other examples of stereotypes and misconceptions, particularly Koluskap: Stories from Wolastoqiyik web site
  5. using the images downloaded from the Views of a People Learning Object, have students review the images, creating captions for each image including an approximate date. This can be done either individually or in small groups of 3-5 
  6. review the student generated captions, providing the accurate information for each image after student responses are completed. 
  7. class discussion topic – what is surprising about these images? Are there certain things that appear in the images that reinforce any stereotypes of First Nations people and their communities? 
  8. have students complete activity Exit Slip that includes the student name, date and class along with space to note the outcomes of the exercise and comments about the activity 
  9. collect completed Exit Slips

Suggested Assessment Strategies:

  • Use the completed vocabulary activities to determine students’ prior knowledge and understanding of the terms 
  • Student generated lists can be used to determine student understanding and prior knowledge 
  • Collected Exit Slips can be used to asses student learning as well as areas that should be reviewed next class 
  • Quick write – this can be used to asses prior knowledge and perceptions 
  • Class discussion

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Teacher Generated Resources: All of the teacher-generated resources contributed to support this lesson are available for download by clicking on the link(s) below:

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php 

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

Section Four: Additional Information

Modifications:
This lesson’s process and products can be differentiated. Some students may be required to only complete the image portion of the vocabulary activities, using teacher provided definitions.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Voices of Wolastoqiyik

Lesson Description: Students will listen to audio statements regarding what it means to be a member of the Wolastoqey community and write an expository essay

Time Required: 2 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: ask discerning questions to acquire, interpret, analyze, and evaluate ideas and information  listen critically to analyze and evaluate concepts, ideas, and information  examine others’ ideas and synthesize what is helpful to clarify and expand on their own understanding  gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Views of a People content
Various resources Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Voices of Wolastoqiyik

Lesson Description: Students will listen to audio statements regarding what it means to be a member of the Wolastoqey community and write an expository essay

Time Required: 2 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • ask discerning questions to acquire, interpret, analyze, and evaluate ideas and information 
  • listen critically to analyze and evaluate concepts, ideas, and information 
  • examine others’ ideas and synthesize what is helpful to clarify and expand on their own understanding 
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Views of a People content
Various resources – library, computer lab etc.
Small “sticky notes” – approx. 5 per student

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Class 1

  1. Have students write a brief response to the following prompt “What does it mean to be part of a cultural community?” 
  2. Ask for volunteers to read their responses, writing key words or phrases on the board. 
  3. Discuss the responses, asking students how it may be different for people of a First Nations background/community. Would they feel differently? Why or why not? 
  4. Provide students with the transcript of the audio clips from the Views of a People Learning Object 
  5. Play the audio clips for the class. 
  6. ask students what if anything surprised them when they listened to the words of Mr. and Mrs. Stewart Bernard. 
  7. Hand each student between 5 and 10 small sticky notes (Post-its work). Play the audio clips again, this time having students place a sticky beside any place in the transcript which causes them to have a question. Have students write their questions on the sticky notes. (the audio clips may need to be played a few times to ensure adequate time for his activity) 
  8. Using large pieces of paper have students write 2-3 of their questions down to share with the class. 
  9. Once all questions are written down, have students divide the questions into ones that can be answered: a) in the text or b) in other sources 
  10. In small groups have students examine the questions they produced and brainstorm a list of possible resources for answering these questions. 
  11. using resources available (library, computer lab etc.), have the small groups choose 2 or 3 questions they would like to explore further, and begin to search for the answers. 
  12. encourage students to explore the Koluskap: Stories from Wolastoqiyik website and other online resources 
  13. for next class, have students find the answers to some of the questions generated.

Class 2

  1. Using available resources, students find answers to the questions generated last class. 
  2. Students write an expository essay in response to the following prompt:
    How would you identify culture? Using the information gathered over the past few classes, write an essay about the cultural views of Wolastoqiyik. Be sure to include the biases, stereotypes and assumptions experienced by Wolastoqiyik.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
evaluate questions posed for completeness, and how they apply to the audio clip and transcript
evaluate essay using the Expository Essay Key http://712educators.about.com/cs/rubrics/l/blrubricexpos.htm

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Teacher Generated Resources: All of the teacher-generated resources contributed to support this lesson are available for download by clicking on the link(s) below:

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  
http://712educators.about.com/cs/rubrics/l/blrubricexpos.htm   

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Community is for People

Lesson Description: Students will gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions.

Time Required: 2 x 50 Minute Classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

Students will be expected to: examine others’ ideas and synthesize what is helpful to clarify and expand on their own understanding  ask discriminating questions to acquire, interpret, analyze, and evaluate ideas and information articulate, advocate, and justify positions on issues or text in a convincing manner, showing an understanding of a range of viewpoints  listen critically to analyze and evaluate concepts, ideas, and information  adapt language and delivery for a variety of audiences and purposes in informal and formal contexts, some of which are chara Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Community is for People

Lesson Description: Students will gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions.

Time Required: 2 x 50 Minute Classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

Students will be expected to:

  • examine others’ ideas and synthesize what is helpful to clarify and expand on their own understanding 
  • ask discriminating questions to acquire, interpret, analyze, and evaluate ideas and information
  • articulate, advocate, and justify positions on issues or text in a convincing manner, showing an understanding of a range of viewpoints 
  • listen critically to analyze and evaluate concepts, ideas, and information 
  • adapt language and delivery for a variety of audiences and purposes in informal and formal contexts, some of which are characterized by complexity of purpose, procedure, and subject matter 
  • respond to a wide range of complex questions and directions 
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required:
Access to Views of a People content, specifically: 
Bernard5(community) audio clip
Bernard4(auntAlice) audio clip
Computer with Speakers
Pen
Paper
Internet

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

  1. The teacher will write the words “Harmony” and “Disharmony” on the board. 
  2. The teacher will ask for student volunteers to define these two terms and to provide an example of each. 
  3. The teacher will then play the audio clip Bernard5 (community) to the class. It is recommended that this audio clip be played more than once. The teacher may want to discuss the sensitive nature of the topic to persons of the First Nation community, encouraging respectful listening and speaking at all times. 
  4. The teacher is also encouraged to model the language of harmony throughout the lesson (see additional comments below). 
  5. The students will write their reaction to the audio clip in a writing journal notebook, word document or blog. 
  6. The students will share some of their initial thoughts on the concept of “reservation” with class. The First Nation community shares everything to the left (the side where your heart resides), so the teacher may choose to seat students in a talking circle or start the class discussion from the left of the room. 
  7. The teacher will facilitate the discussion with the following questions:
    a) Mr. Bernard asks, “They took a piece of land and set it aside for the Natives. Where did they get this piece of land to set aside for us? If all of the land belonged to the Natives, where did they get it to set aside for us?” If you were a person of Aboriginal descent, how would this make you feel? Describe your emotions in detail.
    b) Explain how you would feel if someone took something that initially belonged to you, and then a small piece of it was set aside for your use.
    c) How would you feel if the place in which you lived is called a “reservation”, knowing that the term equated your existence to that of an animal?
    d) Describe the role that respect plays in the terminology we chose to use in our daily lives. 
  8. The teacher will then ask the students where to place the word “community” and “reservation” in respect to the terms “harmony” and “disharmony”. Students should respond by saying that community is a term of harmony and reservation is a term of disharmony. Also reference Language of Harmony and Respect template below.

    Harmony:  Community
    Disharmony:  Reservation 
  9. The students will listen to the second audio clip, Bernard4(auntAlice). Again, it is recommended that this clip be played to the class more than once. 
  10. Keeping in mind their responses from the first audio clip, students will take on the persona of Aunt Alice or Uncle John. In a poem, short story, letter, or blog entry, students will explain why Alice or John denied their Wolastoqiyik ancestry after moving away from their home. Why was it not the proper thing to be Aboriginal? How would the terms of harmony and disharmony have an impact on your life as an Aboriginal person?
  11. The teacher will act as facilitator throughout the rest of the lesson, troubleshooting issues as they arise. Conferences will be held with individual students to gauge progress. 
  12. The teacher will evaluate these assignments for the purpose of evaluation.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:

  • The teacher will construct checklists or rubrics that assess students' abilities to achieve the selected objectives. 
  • The teacher will record anecdotal notes as students speak, listen, and write to identify their strengths and instructional needs.
  • The teacher will conduct formal and informal observations. 
  • The teacher will involve students in the self-assessment of their learning processes and final products. 
  • Students will be evaluated on their final product.

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  
http://www.co-intelligence.org/P-listeningcircles.html  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

Section Four: Additional Information

Modifications: Students may create a pod casts instead of writing the assignments, if the equipment is available. Students may also want to videotape their responses.

Additional Comments: Referenced by handout by David Perley, Language of Harmony and Respect:

Language of Harmony:
• Aboriginal
• Native
• Indigenous
• Original Inhabitants
• Wolastoqiyik
• Maliseet
• Mi’kmaq
• Micmac
• First Nation
Language of Disharmony:
• Indian
• Tribe
• Band
• Reserve
• Reservation, rez
• Powwow
• Uncivilized, savage, primitive
• Pagan, heathen
• Injun, squaw, papoose
• Chief


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Journalism

Lesson Title: Media Influences: Views of a People

Lesson Description: The student will learn the power of media to manipulate and dictate a perception of a community, culture and language. The students will refer to historical documents as well as contemporary news articles to assess media’s role in shaping the view of Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals about Aboriginal culture and lifestyle.

Time Required: 1 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: demonstrate an understanding of how media constructs reality  examine how texts construct notions of role, behaviour, culture, and reality  examine how media texts reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Journalism

Lesson Title: Media Influences: Views of a People

Lesson Description: The student will learn the power of media to manipulate and dictate a perception of a community, culture and language. The students will refer to historical documents as well as contemporary news articles to assess media’s role in shaping the view of Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals about Aboriginal culture and lifestyle.

Time Required: 1 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • demonstrate an understanding of how media constructs reality 
  • examine how texts construct notions of role, behaviour, culture, and reality 
  • examine how media texts reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Views of a People content and general internet access

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Part 1

  1. View images from the Views of a People Learning Object and read article http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/aboriginal_people/aboriginal_news.cfm
  2. Familiarize yourself with the website and the historical pictures that depict Wolastoqiyik. For each picture have the student create a headline for the picture. 
  3. Select three pictures and divide the class so that 1/3 of the class is focused on one of the pictures. 
  4. Have each student compose a 300 word newspaper article explaining the “story” behind the photo/painting etc. 
  5. Next class have the students gather in groups according to the picture they have been assigned and read a minimum of three articles written by their peers. 
  6. As a class, on the overhead/blackboard/power-point, write a list of observations that they made by perspective and truth behind the reality.
  7. Instructions for students:
    • Try to determine the audience the picture/photograph was produced for…does this determine the layout/mood/authenticity of the picture?
    • Select a picture that captures your imagination.
    • Be conscious of the words and phrases that you use to convey your story. Is your story based on a story that you are familiar with-if yes, were the participants Aboriginal?
    • Did you find similarities when comparing the stories? If yes, why do you think this occurred, if no –what do you think accounts for it?

PART 2

  1. Have students brainstorm recent stories that they have heard about Aboriginals in the news. 
  2. Distribute article Aboriginals in the News 
  3. After they have finished, have each student identify five ideas that they were not aware of prior to reading the article. 
  4. Have the students write a newspaper article discussing in their own words what they now understanding about the depiction of Aboriginals in the news. 
  5. Bonus marks: make a connection between the historical perception and modern depiction of Aboriginals
  6. Instructions for students:
    • What images come to your mind when you think of Aboriginals in the news?
    • What kinds of articles are not written about Aboriginals.

Suggested Assessment Strategies: 
Students will be directed with specific questions relating to the material to undercover the media’s role in point of view.

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  
http://www.media-awareness.ca/english/issues/stereotyping/aboriginal_people/aboriginal_news.cfm
Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Media Studies and Journalism

Lesson Title: Wolastoqiyik: History in the Media

Lesson Description: Students will gain an understanding of how the media affects reality; what is seen and not seen have a profound impact upon our perceptions and consideration of issues and events.

Time Required: 2 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: consistently demonstrate active listening and concern for the needs, rights and feelings of others  demonstrate how spoken language influences and manipulates, and reveals ideas, values and attitudes  demonstrate how media messages influence and manipulate audiences  examine and create media products to help understand social, political and cultural values  demonstrate an understanding of how media constructs reality  examine how texts construct notions of role, behaviour, cult Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Media Studies and Journalism

Lesson Title: Wolastoqiyik: History in the Media

Lesson Description: Students will gain an understanding of how the media affects reality; what is seen and not seen have a profound impact upon our perceptions and consideration of issues and events.

Time Required: 2 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • consistently demonstrate active listening and concern for the needs, rights and feelings of others 
  • demonstrate how spoken language influences and manipulates, and reveals ideas, values and attitudes 
  • demonstrate how media messages influence and manipulate audiences 
  • examine and create media products to help understand social, political and cultural values 
  • demonstrate an understanding of how media constructs reality 
  • examine how texts construct notions of role, behaviour, culture, and reality 
  • examine how texts work to reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions 
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Views of a People content

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Impart the following using resources indicated:

  1. Media’s influence on history is very important. Media has had many forms throughout history and varying ranges of the people it reaches. Before photography was invented people would often paint or draw what inspired them, this was no different in the region inhabited by Wolastoqiyik . However, sometimes the image that is produced does not tell the whole truth behind the picture. 
  2. For example, the photo of the Wolastoqiyik Girls, c. 1860, shows the girls adorned with jewellery and nice dresses. One elder was asked about the clothes and jewellery that they were wearing, to which the elder replied that the photographer may have loaned them the clothes for the pictures only. (1) The image of Moli Elizabet Francis and others, is a more accurate picture of the economic state of Wolastoqiyik; notice here there are no brooches and earrings. 
  3. Another photograph taken by Harrison H. Walker of Wolastoqew Chief William Saulis shows him in a headdress that was used primarily in the west however it portrayed the chief with feathers on his head which was the stereotypical image of Aboriginals. Note that even the caption plays on stereotypes by saying the Chief was “invading” his neighbours. Examine the reproduction Wolastoqew Chieftain’s regalia and note the differences between it and the clothing used by a Chief from the west. 
  4. Also note the importance of the double curve motif in Wolastoqey art and clothing as seen on the frontlet and birchbark box; the curve is missing from the clothing that appears in the Walker photograph. 
  5. It is sometimes said that media controls our thoughts, however this is not true. Instead the media may influence our thoughts and perceptions by reporting on some issues and not reporting as much on others. In some cases the media has helped to propel Aboriginal issues to the forefront of news but in other cases significant news is not covered. 
  6. This was the case in 1977 when there was daily media coverage of a stand-off at the Tobique First Nation Administration Office between the administration and women who lost their Aboriginal status by marrying non-Aboriginal men. The coverage showed Canada how Aboriginal women were being poorly treated because of section section 12 (1) (b) of the Indian Act that claimed that even though women were born Aboriginal, they were no longer considered status because they “married out” of their culture. 
  7. As part of the discussion, have students explore the origins of the Indian Act, the legal definitions of status and non-status, community administration and the language of disharmony that is reinforced in the act. Discuss the language of harmony and the usage of appropriate language and terms. 
  8. Even though the media brought the issue to the broader public, other things that were even more embarrassing to Canada’s reputation were not as widely published. For instance, the federal report on the status of Aboriginal women in Canada. The report as published in the book, Enough is Enough: Aboriginal Women Speak Out, stated, “Indian women likely rank among the most severely disadvantaged in Canadian society. They are worse off economically than both Indian Men and Canadian women…” 
  9. Senator Sandra Lovelace Nicholas, with support from Neqotkuk Elder women and other concerned community members, were instrumental in changing the Indian Act. (Link to Government of Canada website to find more information on Senator Lovelace-Nicholas found below) During the summer of 1981, the United Nations finally ruled that Canada violated the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights because of the sexual discrimination in the Indian Act. It would take another four years for the Government of Canada to amend the Indian Act and re-instate all the women and children who had lost their status.
  10. In the above mentioned case the media was brought in to report on a stand-off in an administrative building; however the issues leading up to the stand-off were not published. For example, the discriminatory elements of the Indian Act allowed for women in domestic disputes to be thrown out of their houses with their children because house titles were only in the male’s name. However, this did not receive attention by the media until the women, frustrated and homeless, moved into the Administration Office to have shelter for their families. 
  11. This is just one of the ways information on the lifestyle of First Nations is overlooked by the media. By limiting text about certain issues, the rest of society is oblivious to the social, economic, political and cultural affairs of Wolastoqeyal communities. In addition to the above case, lack of media context also contributes to disharmony and inaccurate perceptions among Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals such as misunderstandings about financial arrangements with communities, land claims and Treaty Rights. 
  12. Aboriginals had to eventually get their own television network so that news on First Nations issues would be reported in a more accurate context and would encourage better understanding among cultures; not only understanding of Wolastoqiyik, but all Aboriginals. (Link to the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network below)

Assignment
Have the students look through current media sources for news about Aboriginal issues – newspaper, radio, television and web. Note: be sure to explore the Aboriginal Peoples Television Network site or channel. Working in groups or individually (teacher’s choice), have students report on an issue with particular attention to the gaps in coverage noted above. As part of the discussion, students should express their thoughts on how Aboriginals and non-Aboriginals are affected by the issue.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
Use standard performance-based assessment tools. Recommended criteria:
• demonstrated understanding of how media constructs reality
• demonstrated understanding of how texts construct notions of role, behaviour, culture, and reality
• demonstrated understanding of how texts work to reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions.

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Supplementary Resources:
Silman, Janet. Enough is Enough: Aboriginal Women Speak Out.
Walker, Harrison H. photograph from National Geographic

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  
http://canada.gc.ca/main_e.html  
http://www.aptn.ca/

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

1. Marie Perley in conversation with Neqotkuk Elders.
© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

Views of a People Learning Object is designed for students and educators to meet the following objectives:

  • analyse the political challenges and opportunities that may affect Canada’s future: examine issues related to Aboriginal autonomy and self-government
  • analyse the factors that contribute to the perception of self and the development of a world view
  • evaluate group, institutional, and media influences on people and society in both historical and contemporary settings
  • evaluate the causes and consequences of differing world views
    analyse cases and personal values regarding stereotyping, discrimination, and conformity and how they affect individuals and groups
  • examine others’ ideas and synthesize what is helpful to clarify and expand on their own understanding
  • ask discerning questions to acquire, interpret, analyze, and evaluate ideas and information
  • articulate, advocate, and justify positions on issues or text in a convincing manner, showing an understanding of a range of viewpoints
  • listen critically to analyze and evaluate concepts, ideas, and information
  • adapt language and delivery for a variety of audiences and purposes in informal and formal contexts, some of which are characterized by complexity of purpose, procedure, and subject matter
  • reflect critically on and evaluate their own and others’ uses of language in a range of contexts, recognizing elements of verbal and non-verbal messages that produce powerful communication
  • consistently demonstrate active listening and concern for the needs, rights, and feelings of others
  • demonstrate how spoken language influences and manipulates, and reveals ideas, values, and attitudes
  • make connections between their own values, beliefs, and cultures and those reflected in literary and media texts
  • demonstrate a willingness to explore diverse perspectives to develop or modify their points of view
  • use note-making strategies to reconstruct increasingly complex knowledge
  • explore the use of photographs, diagrams, storyboards, etc., in documenting experiences
  • make effective choices of language and techniques to enhance the impact of imaginative writing and other ways of representing
  • evaluate the responses of others to their writing and media production
    consistently demonstrate active listening and concern for the needs, rights and feelings of others
  • demonstrate how spoken language influences and manipulates, and reveals ideas, values and attitudes
  • demonstrate how media messages influence and manipulate audiences
  • examine and create media products to help understand social, political and cultural values
  • demonstrate an understanding of how media constructs reality
  • examine how texts construct notions of role, behaviour, culture, and reality
  • examine how texts work to reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions

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