Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9

Subject: Social Studies

Lesson Title: Stories in the Oral Tradition

Lesson Description: This lesson plan uses a skit performance with props, narrator and characters illustrating one of the stories of Koluskap. First, Chapters 1,3,4 including "Describing Aboriginal Peoples" (pg. 44) from Canadian Identity will have been taught before this project begins. It will provide students with a knowledge base of terms, different Aboriginal cultures, locations and cultural ways of life, in order to create visuals to employ in their dramatic presentation.

Time Required: 4 x 60 Minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: investigate how artistic and literary expression reflects the following aspects of Wolastoqiyik identity: landscape, climate, history, people-citizenship, and related challenges and opportunities  portray their personal understanding of Wolastoqiyik identity  gain a greater Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9

Subject: Social Studies

Lesson Title: Stories in the Oral Tradition

Lesson Description: This lesson plan uses a skit performance with props, narrator and characters illustrating one of the stories of Koluskap. First, Chapters 1,3,4 including "Describing Aboriginal Peoples" (pg. 44) from Canadian Identity will have been taught before this project begins. It will provide students with a knowledge base of terms, different Aboriginal cultures, locations and cultural ways of life, in order to create visuals to employ in their dramatic presentation.

Time Required: 4 x 60 Minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • investigate how artistic and literary expression reflects the following aspects of Wolastoqiyik identity: landscape, climate, history, people-citizenship, and related challenges and opportunities 
  • portray their personal understanding of Wolastoqiyik identity 
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Stories in the Oral Tradition content

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Day 1: Introduction of Stories in the Oral Tradition

  1. The teacher will use a "Brainstorming Web" to discuss with the class about the topic "Storytelling in Aboriginal Cultures". Teachers should explore the language of harmony and disharmony with students. 
  2. The teacher will distribute a copy of the following three stories. Firstly, the teacher will use Folklore of Nova Scotia, Chapter 2, Indian Myth and Legend, pages 1520. Secondly, the class would then read from Discovering Canada, Native Peoples, People of the Rising Sun: The Giant Glooscap, pages 211. Thirdly, time providing, the class will read an example from the Koluskap: Stories from Wolastoqiyik web site. It is recommended that the teacher select Koluskap and his Brother, Malsum, story #1. These stories will help explain the importance of Aboriginal Stories.
  3. The teacher will discuss the method of oral storytelling, the cultural significance and the uses of symbolism.

Day 2: The Dramatic Presentation: Skits of Koluskap

  1. Divide the class into groups of 4 (3 or 5 depending on class size). 
  2. Assign each group a story from those listed in the Stories in the Oral Tradition Learning Object. The 7 recommended stories selections are: Koluskap and the Giant Beaver, Koluskap and the Giant Skunk, Klu Visits Turtle, Turtle Goes Before a Council, Turtle Gets a Whale, Turtle Plays Football, and Turtle Goes Hunting.
  3. Beginning of Group Work:  Each group will be required to read through the story once or twice. The students may do this individually or as a group somewhere quiet. 
  4. When reading is complete, each student group is responsible to choose a narrator (someone with a good speaking voice), identify the key acting roles (characters), and assign acting roles that pertain to their story. Remember, the narrator will read the story, and the actors will perform the story with props, as it is read. 
  5. Each group is responsible for making or finding the props for their dramatic presentation. 
  6. The teacher will discuss some general ideas for props such as clothing and scenery. Stapling is an easy way to attach materials, such as beadwork of any sort. 
  7. The next day students will practice their skits with props.

Day 3: Rehearsal and Prop Creation Day

  1. It is recommended that the students have a quiet area in which to work. The students are responsible for making sure that they have all of their props ready, or are aware of the last minute things they need to acquire. 
  2. The students are required to rehearse their skit with props, if available, several times. 
  3. The teacher will observe one rehearsal to add comments to help the students.

Day 4: Presentation Day: Koluskap: Stories from Wolastoqiyik

  1. The teacher will attempt to make sure there is a stage setting, or clear the front of a classroom with plenty of space to use. 
  2. Students will perform their presentation in their assign groups. 
  3. Students will discuss each presentation after it is performed, and will provide constructive feedback to their peers. 
  4. The teacher will evaluate each performance and also provide constructive feedback to students.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
• Creativity: 10 marks
• Props: 10 marks
• Participation (2 days): 10 marks
• Overall performance: 20 marks

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Teacher Generated Resources: All of the teacher generated resources contributed to support this lesson are available for download by clicking on the link(s) below:

Supplementary Resources:
Fraser, Mary L.,(ND). Folklore of Nova Scotia: chapter 2, Indian Myth and Legends, pgs. 1520. Nova Scotia: Formac Limited.

Livesey, Robert, Smith, A.G., (1993). Native Peoples: People of the Rising Sun, The Giant Glooscap, pgs 211. Toronto: Stoddart Publishing.

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php
http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Legends/How_Kluskap_Sang_Through_The_Rapids_And_Found_A_New_Home-Micmac.html

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

Section Four: Additional Information

Modifications:
This is the students’ interpretation of the story. The teacher will have to remember that these stories were handed down by Aboriginal Peoples orally with the aid of singing, dancing and acting.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Social Studies

Lesson Title: Oral History and Dream Time

Lesson Description: Provide students with an understanding of the culture and experiences of Wolastoqiyik through the stories that were passed from generation to generation.

Time Required: 1 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions  demonstrate an understanding of culture, diversity, and world view, recognizing the similarities and differences reflected in various personal, cultural, racial, and ethnic perspectives  evaluate patterns for preserving, modifying, and transmitting culture while adapting to environmental or social change  demonstrate an understanding of the past and how it affects the present and the future  apply concepts associated with time, continuity, and c Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Social Studies

Lesson Title: Oral History and Dream Time

Lesson Description: Provide students with an understanding of the culture and experiences of Wolastoqiyik through the stories that were passed from generation to generation.

Time Required: 1 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions 
  • demonstrate an understanding of culture, diversity, and world view, recognizing the similarities and differences reflected in various personal, cultural, racial, and ethnic perspectives 
  • evaluate patterns for preserving, modifying, and transmitting culture while adapting to environmental or social change 
  • demonstrate an understanding of the past and how it affects the present and the future 
  • apply concepts associated with time, continuity, and change 
  • analyse and compare events of the past to the present in order to make informed, creative decisions about issues

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Stories in the Oral Tradition content

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Impart the following using resources indicated:

  1. Wolastoqiyik way of life prior to contact was closely connected to Mother Earth and Father Sky. The teachings of the sacred Medicine Wheel guided the lives of Wolastoqiyik. The teachings are egalitarian in nature with the Medicine Wheel representing the interrelation of all people and things. These values can often been seen in the oral histories and stories of Wolastoqiyik. 
  2. When meetings were held often a Talking Stick or Eagle Feather was passed around so that all members of the community could offer their opinion on a particular discussion. And great pride was taken in Wolastoqiyik stories. Oral history was the way in which the knowledge was passed from generation to generation. 
  3. The stories helped teach youth and adults alike how their behaviours affected others around them. The stories often used comedy to portray to the listeners a lesson without directly singling out any individual. This was done so that the individual would have an opportunity to learn from the message instead of being embarrassed because of their behaviour. 
  4. Storytelling was a way to keeping family and friends together by listening to the adventures of Koluskap and other individuals from their families who walked these lands long ago. 
  5. When a story was told it brought the narrative back to life through a concept called dream time. We are always dreaming even when we are awake. This is the “magic” that exists all around us and allows us to shift into different worlds and different bodies, through our inter-relation with all things. When people stopped believing in the dream time, they stopped believing in the “magic” that existed all around them.
  6. Shamans speak of the dream time and how through dreaming anything can be manifested, so the story is the verbalization of the dream. And this is where the miraculous nature of the tale lies. 
  7. In the story Turtle Marries the Chief’s Daughter, the Chief’s family first questions whether the daughter can marry a turtle, however they decide to believe in the powers of Koluskap and Koluskap teaches the Chief’s family many lessons through Turtle. So it is important to believe. 
  8. It is our belief in these stories and knowledge of the inter-connection of all things that gives power to the oral histories. Our belief in the dream time to allow our spirits to live extraordinary lives. 
  9. Read and examine the other stories in the Stories in the Oral Tradition Learning Object. As a class, discuss the life lessons illustrated and examples of dream time. 
  10. Listen to the storytelling audio of Gwen Bear and Roseanne Clark and review the English and Wolastoqey texts. Discuss the similarities and differences between the audio versions and the text versions. Highlight the importance of language in storytelling and discuss the pros and cons of exposing the stories to other cultures; ie. appreciation and means of awareness of Wolastoqey culture by sharing, educational opportunity for other cultures to share in the life lessons, loss of meaning through changes in languages and translation, outside non-Aboriginal influences, opposition to the mystery and spirituality of the stories, possible alterations by non-Aboriginals to have an affect on land claims and other treaty rights, etc. 
  11. Invite a Wolastoqew elder and/or storyteller to class for a storytelling session and to discuss the meaning and significance of the oral history tradition.

Assignment

  • Have students research a story that has been passed from generation to generation in their own family, a story that is based in their own culture or a favourite story from childhood that demonstrates a life lesson and that had an impact upon their behaviour. 
  • Based upon the points above and the content from the Stories in the Oral Tradition Learning Object, have students compare one of the stories with the one chosen above. 
  • In a written assignment, have students discuss the similarities and differences between the stories, highlighting the concepts of life lessons, sharing of knowledge, shape shifting, dream time, humour, original language and changes to the narratives over time. 
  • Have students share their assignments in class.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
Use standard performance-based assessment tools.

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

Stories in the Oral Tradition Learning Object is designed for students and educators to meet the following objectives:

  • investigate how artistic and literary expression reflects the following aspects of Canadian identity: landscape, climate, history, people-citizenship, and related challenges and opportunities 
  • evaluate patterns for preserving, modifying, and transmitting culture while adapting to environmental or social change 
  • follow up on and extend others’ ideas in order to reflect upon their own interpretation of experiences 
  • effectively adapt language and delivery for a variety of audiences and situations in order to achieve their goals or intents 
  • critically evaluate others’ use of language and use this knowledge to reflect on and improve their own uses of language 
  • adapt language and communication style to audience, purpose, and situation 
  • assess ideas, information and language, synthesizing and applying meaning from diverse and differing perspectives 
  • make connections between the ideas and information presented in literary and media texts and their own experiences 
  • recognize how the artful use of language and the structures of genre and text can influence or manipulate the reader/viewer 
  • explore the diverse ways in which texts reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions 
  • reflect on their responses to print and media texts, considering their own and others’ social and cultural contexts 
  • use writing and other ways of representing to explore, interpret, and reflect on their experiences with a range of texts and issues 
  • use writing and other ways of representing to express their feelings, and reflect on experiences that have shaped their ideas, values, and attitudes 
  • make informed choices about the use of computer and media technology to serve their communication purposes 
  • demonstrate a commitment to crafting a range of writing and other representations 
  • use information from a variety of sources to construct and communicate meaning

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