Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9/10

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Koluskap and an Inconvenient Truth

Lesson Description: The students will develop critical thinking skills by reading Koluskap and the Giant Beaver and analyzing the text to help understand the values of Wolastoqiyik.

Time Required: 3 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: respond critically to a variety of print and media texts demonstrate an awareness that texts reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions  make inferences, draw conclusions, and make supported responses to content, form and structure  use writing and other ways of representing to extend ideas and experiences  reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes  consistently use the conventions of written language in final products gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and th Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9/10

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: Koluskap and an Inconvenient Truth

Lesson Description: The students will develop critical thinking skills by reading Koluskap and the Giant Beaver and analyzing the text to help understand the values of Wolastoqiyik.

Time Required: 3 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • respond critically to a variety of print and media texts
  • demonstrate an awareness that texts reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions 
  • make inferences, draw conclusions, and make supported responses to content, form and structure 
  • use writing and other ways of representing to extend ideas and experiences 
  • reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes 
  • consistently use the conventions of written language in final products
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions 

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Shaping the Landscape content and http://www.climatecrisis.net/

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Lesson 1

  1. Brainstorm: Identify behaviours and attitudes that North American society condemns.  Identify the way in which we encourage individuals to behave appropriately
  2. Journal question: From where do Canadians get their ideas about right and wrong? 
  3. Using the web site, Koluskap: Stories from Wolastoqiyik, introduce Koluskap to the class so that students have a firm understanding of his significance to Aboriginal cultures, specifically Wolastoqiyik. Have students research Koluskap further as time permits. 
  4. Introduce the story Koluskap and the Giant Beaver. Each student should have a copy of the story. When finished discuss the following questions:
    1. What role does Koluskap assume in the story?
    2. What is the difference in attitude that Koluskap shows to the bear versus the squirrel and beaver?
    3. What is it that Koluskap values in the bear's attitude?
    4. What attitude doesn't Koluskap value in the squirrel and beaver?
  5. Next, invite the students to look at the images found at Shaping the Landscape to get a better sense of the geography referred to by Koluskap. 
  6. Introduce Task: As he promised when he left them, Koluskap has returned at the request of his people and has encountered large population centers, governments, business and industry instead of beavers, squirrels and bears. Explore the website http://www.climatecrisis.net. Examine the pictures, read about the science and become familiar with the subject of climate change.

Lesson 2 & 3

  1. Write a short story, approximately 300-500 words, graphic tale or lengthy rap song (20 lines minimum) starring Koluskap. In this creative piece, Koluskap "deals" with the destructive values and behaviours of people, society, business and government that allow climate change to continue. 
  2. Peer editing should be introduced in the second class. Either have the due date the end of the third class or assign more time at home to finish.

Suggested Critical Thinking Skills Rubrics: http://wsuctprojectdev.wsu.edu/ctr_docs/CIT%20Rubric%202006.pdf
http://www.rio.maricopa.edu/distance_learning/critical_think_rubric.shtml

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources
Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php
http://www.climatecrisis.net/  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

Section Four: Additional Information

Modifications: You may wish to give them additional class time to finish the writing if they are struggling writers.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Geography

Lesson Title: Wolastoqiyik: People of the Beautiful River

Lesson Description: Provide students with an understanding of the culture and lives of Wolastoqiyik. Students will gain an appreciation of First Nations traditional culture and way of life.

Time required: 1 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: Understand the origin and diversity of rocks.  Identify, describe and explain the processes that shape the earth’s surface.  Demonstrate how these processes create specific landforms.  Identify and explain the origin of selected local landforms.  Gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Shaping the Landscape content Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 12

Subject: Geography

Lesson Title: Wolastoqiyik: People of the Beautiful River

Lesson Description: Provide students with an understanding of the culture and lives of Wolastoqiyik. Students will gain an appreciation of First Nations traditional culture and way of life.

Time required: 1 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • Understand the origin and diversity of rocks. 
  • Identify, describe and explain the processes that shape the earth’s surface. 
  • Demonstrate how these processes create specific landforms. 
  • Identify and explain the origin of selected local landforms. 
  • Gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Shaping the Landscape content

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Impart the following using resources indicated:

  1. Wolastoqiyik have survived in this region since time immemorial. Their connection to the land is evident through their knowledge of its landscapes and medicinal uses of the plants. Discuss the estuary of Wolastoq: animals, plants, people, communication, travel, etc. Make special note of any special land forms or geographical changes in the landscape from the beginning of the river to its mouth. 
  2. In Robert M. Leavitt’s book, Maliseet Micmac: First Nations of the Maritimes, he discuss four broad time periods for this region. These are: the Early Period (10,600 – 6,000 years ago), the Middle Period (6,000 – 3,000yrs ago), the Late Period (3000 – 500 years ago), and the Historic Period (500 years ago to present). Have students find the sub-periods of these four and the defining description of each. 
  3. Each period offers archaeological evidence of a certain region of the Maritime’s that was inhabited from the coast to the inland. The story, Koluskap and the Giant Beaver, offers an oral history account of all the territories where Wolastoqiyik live and have names for in their language. 
  4. When meetings were held often a Talking Stick or Eagle Feather was passed around so that each member of the community, while holding the stick or feather, could offer their opinion on a particular discussion. And great pride was taken in Wolastoqiyik stories. Oral history was the way in which the knowledge was passed from generation to generation. The knowledge of the land is evident in the Wolastoqey names for various landscapes as illustrated in the story, Koluskap and the Giant Beaver. Have students read the story and discuss the various land features, place names, traditions and other history recounted. 
  5. Using the image of the giant beaver tooth, explain that the story also makes clear the development of certain landscapes through the efforts of Koluskap to protect man from animals that were so large that entire landscapes were changed in altercations with these almost mystical creatures. 
  6. The stories, Koluskap and the Giant Beaver and Koluskap and the Giant Skunk, offer oral histories that clearly demonstrate Wolastoqiyik have been here at least as long as animals that were once as large as dinosaurs. The stories also offer evidence of the evolution of animals and landscapes over time. Re-read the stories and have students identify the land forms and places mentioned in each story. 
  7. Wolastoqiyik travel and use of the landscape changed based upon seasonal climates and resources available. They also maintained communication with other groups of Wolastoqiyik and the neighbouring Passamaquoddy, Mi’kmaq and Penebscot. This interaction allowed for trade of differing types of stones that made creating certain tools easier. Have students examine a modern map of the Saint John River system and discuss a comparison of modern transportation and communication routes with the historical methods of Wolastoqiyik. 
  8. The flood zones of Wolastoq make certain landscapes uninhabitable during the spring. Flooding also creates erosion of land that uncovers some artifacts and takes others away with its waters. Have the students identify flood zones and land masses affected by them. Examine the Shaping the Landscape images for evidence of the affects of flooding and the regular flow of the river. 
  9. Dr. Susan E. Blair, University of New Brunswick, conducted an analysis of various archaeological excavations and studies of ancient Wolastoqiyik landscapes and offers a glimpse of the lives of our ancestors. This archaeological confirmation enhances the evidence of Wolastoqiyik presence from the beginning demonstrated in the storytelling and oral history tradition. 
  10. By examining the artifacts found at numerous areas around Wolastoq, Blair identified a “record of habitation and domestic activity spanning more than 2000 years.” However, those dates are derived from specific sites used in her research; other sites offer artifacts dating as far back as 8000 years. Some of the artifacts found are arrowheads, flakes (bi-product from making arrowheads and other stone tools), as well as ceramics just to name a few. Radiocarbon dating is used on charcoal from fire pits or hearths found in sedimentary layers that were excavated. 
  11. Archaeological evidence often has gaps in the timeline. Discuss various reasons for this: erosion of flood plains, lack of excavations in certain areas, other movement of landscapes, etc. Given the archaeological gaps, underline the importance of the stories in the history and culture of Wolastoqiyik.

Assignment
Based upon the points above, content from the Shaping the Landscape Learning Object, and their own additional research, have students compose a 500 word essay that addresses the following questions:
• What evidence exists for the shaping of Wolastoq land forms and the presence of Wolastoqiyik? oral history, storytelling tradition as evidenced in Koluskap and Giant Beaver and Giant Skunk stories; ­ archaeology, excavations, artifacts
• What reasons could account for gaps in the archaeological timeline?
­ lack of archaeological excavations; ­ erosion of flood plains; ­ plate tectonics
• What is an estuary and what is its significance? has salt water and fresh water; has extensive plants for medicinal purposes and for food; extensive use of river system and development of trail system for survival, transportation and communication

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
Use standard performance-based assessment tools.

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Supplementary Resources:
Blair, Susan E. The Ancient Wolastoq’kew Landscapes: Settlement and Technology in the Lower Saint John River Valley, Canada.
Leavitt, Robert M. Maliseet & MicMac First Nations of the Maritimes.

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

Shaping the Landscape Learning Object is designed for students and educators to meet the following objectives:

  • select, compile, and display evidence and information from various sources, in different formats, to support a given view in a presentation about ecosystem change
  • communicate questions, ideas, and intentions, and receive, interpret, understand, support, and respond to the ideas of others in preparing a report about ecosystem change
  • investigate how artistic and literary expression reflects the following aspects of Canadian identity: landscape, climate, history, people-citizenship, and related challenges and opportunities
  • demonstrate an understanding of the basic features of Canada’s landscape and climate: identify and locate major landforms of Canada, explain the creation and characteristics of mountains and plains, describe and account for the variation in physical landscape across Canada
  • evaluate patterns for preserving, modifying, and transmitting culture while adapting to environmental or social change
  • evaluate complex issues by asking and answering geographic questions and by acquiring, organizing, and analysing geographic information
  • select and use appropriate geographic representations, tools, and technologies to evaluate problems and issues
  • use spatial concepts and models to interpret and make decisions about the organization, distribution, and interaction of physical and human phenomena
  • evaluate issues concerning the diversity and sustainability of Earth’s ecosystems
  • recognize that communication involves an exchange of ideas (experiences, information, views) and an awareness of the connections between the speaker and the listener; use this awareness to adapt the message, language and delivery to the context
  • demonstrate active listening and respect for the needs, rights, and feelings of others - analyze the positions of others
  • demonstrate an awareness of the power of spoken language by articulating how spoken language influences and manipulates, and reveals ideas, values, and attitudes
  • demonstrate an awareness that texts reveal and produce ideologies, identities, and positions
  • understand the origin and diversity of rocks
  • identify, describe and explain the processes that shape the earth’s surface
  • demonstrate how these processes create specific landforms
  • identify and explain the origin of selected local landforms

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