Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9/10

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: The Story Behind the Find

Lesson Description: Students will bring their imagination to an inanimate object and a concrete poem. A concrete poem is a poem that forms a picture of the topic or follows the contours of a shape that is suggested by the topic.

Time Required: 2 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: consistently use the conventions of written language in final products construct ideas about issues by asking relevant questions and responding thoughtfully to questions posed  give precise instructions, follow directions accurately, and respond thoughtfully to complex questions  use writing and other ways of representing to :extend ideas and experiences, reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes, describe and evaluate their learning process and strategies  demonstrate commitment to cra Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9/10

Subject: English Language Arts

Lesson Title: The Story Behind the Find

Lesson Description: Students will bring their imagination to an inanimate object and a concrete poem. A concrete poem is a poem that forms a picture of the topic or follows the contours of a shape that is suggested by the topic.

Time Required: 2 x 60 minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • consistently use the conventions of written language in final products
  • construct ideas about issues by asking relevant questions and responding thoughtfully to questions posed 
  • give precise instructions, follow directions accurately, and respond thoughtfully to complex questions 
  • use writing and other ways of representing to :extend ideas and experiences, reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes, describe and evaluate their learning process and strategies 
  • demonstrate commitment to crafting pieces of writing and other representations
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to the internet and Art of the Land content

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Lesson 1

  1. Group students (3 to 4 a group) 
  2. Each group should have access to the Art of the Land images 
  3. Without giving any background material ask each group to examine and come up with an explanation or story idea behind each piece of art. While students are encouraged to be creative, be sure to discuss ideas that may be culturally sensitive. Invite an Elder or First Nations representative to class to discuss some of the ideas so that students will have a better understanding of Aboriginal culture. 
  4. Place on the blackboard and throughout the classroom large pieces of paper where each group can write down their ideas. This should take about 1/2 hour.
  5. Have students regroup and assign a person from each group to read aloud the suggestions for one piece of artwork. 
  6. Comment on the originality and cleverness of the ideas

Lesson 2

  1. review the material from yesterday and have the students take a look at the artwork to refresh their memory 
  2. assign the individual assignment which is the concrete poem
  3. make an overhead with the definition of a concrete poem 
  4. clarify any points that need to be addressed 
  5. ask each student to chose a piece of artwork from the Art of the Land Learning Object 
  6. students are then to create a poem (that may indeed reflect a story) in a concrete form.

Homework: Write a journal entry that explains the story behind the concrete poem. This will be stapled to your poem and handed in to be evaluated.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
Poetry rubric adapted from http://w3.trib.com/~johnbn/poetry/poetrub.htm  Journal rubric found at http://www.saskschools.ca/~aboriginal_res/evaluation/jrnlrub.htm  

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Teacher Generated Resources: All of the teacher generated resources contributed to support this lesson are available for download by clicking on the link(s) below:

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php
http://www.schools.pinellas.k12.fl.us/educators/tec/pravda3/concrete.html  
http://www.eop.mu.edu/greg/Sample_Poetry_Rubric.html  
http://www.baymoon.com/~ariadne/form/concrete.htm  
http://www.saskschools.ca/~aboriginal_res/evaluation/jrnlrub.htm  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

Section Four: Additional Information

Modifications: You may wish to give them additional class time to finish the writing if they are struggling writers. There is a huge selection of rubrics on the internet if you are not inclined to write your own.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9 or 10

Subject: Visual Arts

Lesson Title: Working with What You’ve Got

Lesson Description: Students find available natural materials outdoors for use in artwork and producing home-made art supplies using the arts of Wolastoqiyik as inspiration.

Time Required: 3 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: use problem-solving strategies, creativity, and imagination to explore thoughts, experiences, and feelings through their own art develop concepts and imagery based on personal ideas and experience  recognize and describe the role of the visual arts in challenging, sustaining, and reflecting society’s beliefs and traditions  recognize the existence of a variety of visual languages that reflect cultural, socio-economic, and national origins  compare the characteristics of artwork from different cultures and periods in history  Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 9 or 10

Subject: Visual Arts

Lesson Title: Working with What You’ve Got

Lesson Description: Students find available natural materials outdoors for use in artwork and producing home-made art supplies using the arts of Wolastoqiyik as inspiration.

Time Required: 3 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • use problem-solving strategies, creativity, and imagination to explore thoughts, experiences, and feelings
  • through their own art develop concepts and imagery based on personal ideas and experience 
  • recognize and describe the role of the visual arts in challenging, sustaining, and reflecting society’s beliefs and traditions 
  • recognize the existence of a variety of visual languages that reflect cultural, socio-economic, and national origins 
  • compare the characteristics of artwork from different cultures and periods in history 
  • derive images through the study of historical images from their own and others’ cultures 
  • develop knowledge, understanding, and appreciation of art and design in historical and contemporary cultures 
  • use, with confidence, experiences from their personal, social, cultural, and physical environments as a basis for visual expression 
  • make choices and decisions about tools and materials in the creation of art objects 
  • select and use a variety of tools and technological processes in creating art objects, considering the sensory qualities of the materials
  • show competence and responsibility in use and manipulation of required materials, tools, and techniques 
  • demonstrate an open-minded approach to diversity of ideas and artistic style, and show empathy to other people’s point of view 
  • demonstrate increasing complexity in art skills and techniques 
  • experiment with a variety of materials, tools, equipment, and processes
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Art of the Land content
Found plant and mineral materials
Tea light candles (12 – 15)
Inexpensive metal tableware spoons (12 – 15)
Clay (not plasticine)
Spruce gum
Rubbing alcohol
water
Empty glass jars (such as baby food jars)
1 Woven cloth (such as a cotton dish-cloth)
Bristle paintbrushes (medium width)
Birch bark (optional)
Student Computers with internet access
Teacher laptop with internet access and digital projector or smartboard.

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Lesson 1: conceptualizing self-reliant art materials, collecting tree resin

  1. Begin by eliciting knowledge of how our conventional art supplies are manufactured. Pigments are lab-produced chemical precipitates, mixed with synthetic acrylic binders, paper is manufactured, etc. There is little in the way of natural resources used in art supplies today. There is almost NO chance you will ever meet a person who worked to make the art supplies we use, but in the past, for example in Wolastoqiyik culture, the artists used art supplies they produced themselves using natural resources. 
  2. Explore the “Creative Traditions” section of the Koluskap: Stories from Wolastoqiyik web site and pay particular attention to the items in the Art of the Land Learning Object or choose your own examples to highlight 
  3. Ash-splint baskets. There was NO limit to the creative weaving techniques used, but the material itself was simple. Ash trees were cut down in the spring, when the wood was full of sap. The bark was peeled away and then the logs were pounded with mallets. After much pounding, the growth layers of the tree separate into extremely thin flexible “sheets” of wood. This was then cut into strips by being pulled through a splint gauge – any width strip could be made. While the wood was still flexible, the weaving was done. (see photographs of splint gauge). They also sought out the best materials for their work and would travel great distances. For example, they might travel to Maine to find a good ash tree. The unavailability of some materials can contribute to the death of an art form. Have students discuss the potential reasons for this unavailability: economic changes, changes to land usage by non-Aboriginals, etc. 
  4. Birchbark and Moose Hair artifacts: Birchbark was used for many works, sometimes covered with felt or dyed. Like the ash above, sometimes great distances were covered to find the best materials, such as going to Quebec to find adequate birchbark. Embroidery was often done using natural hairs and quills. Moose hair embroidery was particularly beautiful. On a moose’s back and rump are long white hairs with black tips. The hair is coarse, similar to a cat’s whisker. The hairs were pulled out and the black tips cut off. The moose hair could be dyed any colour. Long ago, dyes were made using plants, but more recently commercial dyes were used. Even when commercially prepared materials were available, some Wolastoqiyik still used natural materials for self-expression in respect for their own artistic traditions. The key concept is the fact that locally available materials became the basis for the artworks. 
  5. Before taking the class outdoors, prepare them with a set of simple instructions: Depending on your location, you may be able to find minerals suitable to grind into pigments (yellow ochre is fairly common, particularly in layers between sedimentary shales, a common New Brunswick rock). It is not necessary to find pigments, our next class activity will focus on making our own ink using lampblack. If mineral pigments are secured, they may be mixed with the same binder. See appendix on pigment grinding if necessary. 
  6. The key concept to stress is to keep an eye open for any natural materials you think might be useful to make art (limit this to plant and mineral resources, collection of dead animal parts is not to be encouraged, even feathers need to be disinfected to be safely used).
  7. You will need to find a couple of simple resources: Spruce gum (there are very few areas in the Province without at least some spruce trees. Pine is an acceptable substitute. If you are in a high-density urban area, look for ornamental evergreens and harvest a small handful of the sticky growth tips. Spruce gum and pine resin are both usually found on the trunks of the trees as small solidified lumps of resin. You will often find concentrations of resin where the branches connect to the trunk. You will only need a little to make the binder for your ink. For an entire class project, try to collect a couple of tablespoons full of spruce gum. 
  8. If tree resins are completely unavailable, the white of an egg, beaten in 500mL of water makes an acceptable binder. 
  9. Birchbark makes an exciting art supply, but paper can be substituted if there are no white birches near your school. Stress the importance of responsible bark collection. We do not want to kill the tree. This is an optional activity depending on your locale. 
  10. When you return, have the students pick over the spruce gum, picking out as much bark and foreign matter as possible. 
  11. Next: Mix the resin lumps with rubbing alcohol, until it is mostly dissolved. The liquid will be cloudy. Strain this liquid through cloth (coffee filters are too fine and separate the resin). Save the liquid in a jar. This will become the base for your homemade ink. If time permits, proceed to lesson 2, or wait until the following day.

Lesson 2: Preparing black ink and researching visual symbols

  1. Explain that for thousands of years in many cultures around the world, lampblack has been the most popular black pigment. It is easy to produce and doesn’t have to be ground to a powder like some other black pigments because the soot forms in tiny particles automatically. In ancient Wolastoqiyik culture, lamps were fueled with animal fat, using a wick of plant fibers. A candle is a simple modern substitute. 
  2. Bend the inexpensive spoons as shown, form the clay into lumps, press the tea light into the clay and position the spoon so the bowl is at an angle above the candlewick to make a soot damper. One soot damper for every pair of students will produce enough lampblack to make useful amounts of ink. 
  3. Light the tea lights. Soot will begin to form on the bowl of the spoon. You will be able to easily position the spoon to collect maximum soot. The tip of the spoon should disrupt the flame to cause the candle to smoke. CAUTION: the spoons will become very hot. Do not touch the bowls of the spoons. The handle within the clay will remain cool. All soot dampers must be placed on a level table free of clutter. The clay will insulate the base from heat. Be certain you are not using plasticine (modeling clay). Plasticine contains mineral oil, and poses a fire hazard for this project. 
  4. While the soot is accumulating, have the class explore the Art of the Land Learning Object and the Koluskap: Stories from Wolastoqiyik web site. The goal is to search for visible symbols unique to Wolastoqey art. Allow the students to discover the common decorative techniques on their own. One common motif is the paired spiral or double-curved motif – reminiscent of fiddleheads. Class can relay between looking at website and sketching. If your classroom does not have computers available to research while the soot is being produced, you can change the sequence of lessons 1 and 2, combining activities, and combining research components in the school library. Never leave burning candles unattended. 
  5. Note to students that, “symbols”, as we know them today, were not simply “put on”. This was an activity done by medicine people. Ceremonies, songs, and healings were put on scrolls for future medicine people. The practice was extended to stones, as well; whether chipped in or painted on. Art, as it is called today, had a spiritual purpose. 
  6. As activity progresses, also initiate a discussion concerning cultural appropriation of motifs and symbols. Talk about the pros and cons of using elements from another culture in creating contemporary works. 
  7. Students should do sketches based on the artifact depicted they relate to the best. These sketches should form the beginnings of their own final project. Do not print photographs; use them as reference for sketching. 
  8. After 15 - 20 minutes, there will be a thick accumulation of soot on the spoons. Blow out the candles and allow the spoons to cool for at least 10 minutes before proceeding. 
  9. When the spoons are cooled, collect the class together and work as a group to prepare the ink using the lampblack and the liquid from last class. Add a few drops of the liquid to each spoon, and use a small bristle brush to incorporate the soot with the liquid. Add a little more binder and continue to swirl the soot and binder together. When all the soot is incorporated, place the spoon in the jar of prepared binder (it may be necessary to un-bend the handle) and “wash” the soot off the spoon into the jar using the paintbrush. When all the spoons have been cleaned of their soot, you will have homemade ink! 
  10. This ink remains sticky for a day or so after it dries. The resin eventually dries too, leaving the ink with a glossy surface.

Lesson 3: Using our materials

  1. Your homemade ink can be used with paintbrushes (diluted with water to make washes) or with nib and stylus pens. If you have access to feather quills, it is fun to use the “old fashioned” quill with the homemade ink. 
  2. Decide what object to make. Most historic Wolastoqiyik art was based on utilitarian objects decorated with cultural motifs. A small box is an ideal project. (consult the Grade 7 math curriculum for 3Dimensional nets which can be folded to make a shape). Cardstock paper is a little thicker and easier to work with for this type of activity. If you are using birchbark, it can be glued together, or for the ambitious student, stitched together with needle and thread. Any article can be made, allow the students to use their imagination. Use your ink to decorate the surface. Try to encourage meaningful symbols, related to the function of the object, or reflective of our lifestyle and culture. Wolastoqiyik design elements may be incorporated, or they may inspire students to create their own original motifs. 
  3. Any additional materials gathered during lesson 1 can be incorporated into the final project. 
  4. Additional studio classes may be required to complete the project.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:

For in-class and outdoor activities, use standard performance-based assessment tools. Create a rubric for class activity product. Recommended criteria: incorporation of symbols, experimentation with materials, sketching and planning, attention to finish detail.

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Teacher Generated Resources: All of the teacher-generated resources contributed to support this lesson are available for download by clicking on the link(s) below:
Photographs:
Identifying a Spruce Tree
Spruce Gum on Tree trunk
Dissolving spruce gum
Safely harvesting birch bark
Straining ink base
How to set up a soot damper
Soot forming on damper
Incorporating lampblack
Mixing ink

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  
https://portal.nbed.nb.ca

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

Section Four: Additional Information

Modifications:
This lesson is highly suited to the kinesthetic and practical learner, as well as the visual and auditory learners.

Additional Comments:
With adapted teaching style, adjusted curriculum outcomes and additional safety precautions, this lesson could be delivered to Middle or Elementary School students.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 11 or 12

Subject: Visual Arts

Lesson Title: Incised patterns and function: Encaustic

Lesson Description: Using Wolastoqey decorative motifs and artifacts to guide work in encaustic painting.

Time Required: 2 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: develop familiarity with technologies of production and their potential impact on culture, society, and the natural and built environments recognize and describe the role of the visual arts in challenging, sustaining, and reflecting society’s beliefs and traditions compare the characteristics of artwork from different cultures and periods in history  derive images through the study of historical images from their own and others’ cultures  use, with confidence, experiences from their personal, social, cultural, and physical environments as a basis for visual expression  inv Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 11 or 12

Subject: Visual Arts

Lesson Title: Incised patterns and function: Encaustic

Lesson Description: Using Wolastoqey decorative motifs and artifacts to guide work in encaustic painting.

Time Required: 2 x 60 minute classes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • develop familiarity with technologies of production and their potential impact on culture, society, and the natural and built environments
  • recognize and describe the role of the visual arts in challenging, sustaining, and reflecting society’s beliefs and traditions
  • compare the characteristics of artwork from different cultures and periods in history 
  • derive images through the study of historical images from their own and others’ cultures 
  • use, with confidence, experiences from their personal, social, cultural, and physical environments as a basis for visual expression 
  • investigate and analyze how meaning is embedded in works of art
  • make choices and decisions about tools and materials in the creation of art objects 
  • select and use a variety of tools and technological processes in creating art objects, considering the sensory qualities of the materials 
  • show competence and responsibility in use and manipulation of required materials, tools, and techniques 
  • assess and apply complex image development techniques
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Art of the Land content
Teacher laptop with Internet Access, digital projector or Smartboard
Newspapers to keep mess contained
Paraffin wax
Beeswax (optional)
Wax Crayons
Electric frying pan
Incising tools, such as: linoleum cutters, mat knives, scrapers
Clean, empty shallow tins (such as tuna or salmon tins)
Metal spoons
Short-handled bristle paintbrushes
Cardboard or matboard scrapers
Small wood or paper household objects: for example wooden spoon, paper plate, empty paper coffee cup, wood raspberry box, cardboard jewellery box, etc.

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

  1. Explore the Art of the Land Learning Object and visit the Koluskap: Stories from Wolastoqiyik web site and explore the "Creative Traditions" section. While browsing the gallery, initiate a class discussion on why there is no word for art in the Wolastoqiyik language? Most of First Nations languages are verb-based, subjective and contextual. Art (our present day word) was a way of life rather than object creation. Also, things are spoken of in terms of 3-D rather then 2-D. Art vs. fine craft – can we distinguish the two? What is the function of Art? Expression. Can a utilitarian object transcend its function and become art? Is there any real reason why we have stopped making our everyday objects part of our artistic expression? This question could lead to hand-made vs. manufactured goods discussion - Modern household goods are mass-produced; items made by individuals can often still be considered artworks. 
  2. Look at the various utilitarian objects that have been turned into artworks. 
  3. Draw specific attention to the incised bark box included in the Art of the Land Learning Object. At some point prior to or during the activity, initiate a discussion concerning cultural appropriation of motifs and design elements. Talk about the pros and cons of using elements from another culture in creating contemporary works. 
  4. This is a simple box, made of birch bark, but it is decorated with the traditional Wolastoqey motifs. Pay particular attention to the paired spirals and the leaf patterns. These same elements occur frequently in the other artworks we looked at. We will be drawing on the specific technique used to produce this box. 
  5. This box has incised design. Incised means cut through. This particular birchbark was harvested in the winter before the cambium swelled with sap in the spring. The cambium is the inner layer of living cells that makes the annual growth ring of the tree, and carries the sap in the spring. When maple trees are tapped for syrup, it is the cambium that releases the sap. In the winter the cambium is shrunken and stuck firmly to the outer layers of bark. This is handy as it makes a dark brownish layer. When the cambium is scraped away, the lighter beige layers of bark beneath are revealed. This makes the pattern clearly visible. 
  6. We will be using this technique with different materials to produce patterns. 
  7. We will be attempting to “reclaim” some everyday objects to make them into artworks. Choose your object and begin to think of visual symbols which will support its function – take it from simple decoration toward becoming an artwork. 
  8. Introduce the concept of encaustic – painting with wax. Melted wax can be coloured with dry pigments (we will use crayons). You can paint directly with melted wax, but it is a particularly good medium for incised patterns. Layers of wax in different colours can be applied to an object. Cutting or scraping away the top layers exposes the colours below.
  9. If given advance notice of this project, students can bring in their own wood or paper object. Wood or paper/cardboard is most suitable because the wax does not adhere properly to metal, plastic or glass. 
  10. Set up for encaustic:
    • Spread newspaper over worktable
    • break paraffin wax into chunks and distribute between empty tins. For reasonable creative potential 6 – 8 tins should be sufficient.
    • break up crayons to colour paraffin. To maximize the pigment load of each colour, group crayons, for example: melt all shades of red from the crayon box together to make your own customized red. (be sure to remove paper crayon wrappers) Prepare a good variety of colours with some dark, and some light.
    • place the tins in the electric frying pan, and set the temperature to low. As the wax begins to melt, give it an occasional stir with a popsicle stick. When wax is melted, add a spoon and a paintbrush to each tin.
  11. Adding 10 – 25% beeswax to the paraffin will make the wax more flexible and less likely to crack during working. 
  12. Do not allow the temperature to get too hot, the wax should be just melted, never hot enough to smoke. If the temperature is not allowed to climb too high, the safety risk is minimal – paraffin melts at a temperature lower than the temperature required to cause a serious burn. 
  13. Begin coating objects: very small objects can be dipped and turned to dip all surfaces. Nevertheless, stress the importance of care when handling hot wax: Never touch the tins without thermal protection, hold object being painted carefully to avoid splashing hot wax on your hand. Larger objects can have wax spooned or brushed over. Allow runoff to drip back into the tin. Objects with flat surfaces can have wax spooned on and then rapidly spread with a cardboard scraper before the wax solidifies. The paintbrushes can be used to paint on layers, but the surface may not be perfectly smooth. 
  14. Students should take turns working with the hot wax – crowding will lead to accidents. While awaiting their turn with the wax, students can sketch the beginnings of their patterns on the object. PLAN AHEAD – think of how colours will be used – for example: if colours are applied in this order: yellow, blue, red, white – to make a white flower with yellow centre on a blue and red striped background, the petals must be left alone, the top three layers must be scraped away to reveal the yellow centre, white is scraped away to show red, red is scraped away to show blue. 
  15. If tongs or pot-holders are used, the tins of wax can be temporarily removed from the heat to work with them. Return to the pan when the wax begins to cool. 
  16. Apply several layers of colours, try alternating between dark and light. Allow wax to cool between coats. 
  17. Once layers have been built up, use incising tools to scratch, cut or scrape through the layers to reveal pattern. Try to make your markings sensitive to the object you are decorating, Extra wax can be applied with a brush to build up other colours. 
  18. A combination of incising and painting can be used. 
  19. When piece is finished, buff it to a shine using a pad of paper towel. 
  20. To clean tools, wrap them in newsprint and place in a moderately hot oven (300°F) for a few minutes. The wax will melt and be absorbed into the paper. Wash with dish soap while still hot.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
Standard rubric with these suggested criteria: Design, suitability of art and function, effective use of technique, skillful finish.

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Teacher Generated Resources: All of the teacher-generated resources contributed to support this lesson are available for download by clicking on the link(s) below:

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

Section Four: Additional Information

Modifications:
With additional safety precautions and adjusted curriculum outcomes, this project could be adapted to Elementary or Middle School Art.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 10

Subject: Science

Lesson Title: Sustainability of Ecosystems

Lesson Description: Collect and analyse resources in the ecosystem used in the production of traditional barkwork and basketry pieces to enhance understanding of cultural diversity and sustainability of ecosystems.

Time Required: 2 x 60 Minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes: Propose a course of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account human and environmental needs. Explain various ways in which natural populations are kept in equilibrium, and relate this equilibrium to the resource limits of an ecosystem  Explain how biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to its sustainability  Analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem  Plan changes to, predict the effects of, and analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem  Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 10

Subject: Science

Lesson Title: Sustainability of Ecosystems

Lesson Description: Collect and analyse resources in the ecosystem used in the production of traditional barkwork and basketry pieces to enhance understanding of cultural diversity and sustainability of ecosystems.

Time Required: 2 x 60 Minutes

Specific Curriculum Outcomes:

  • Propose a course of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account human and environmental needs.
  • Explain various ways in which natural populations are kept in equilibrium, and relate this equilibrium to the resource limits of an ecosystem 
  • Explain how biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to its sustainability 
  • Analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem 
  • Plan changes to, predict the effects of, and analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem 
  • Select, compile, and display evidence and information from various sources, in different formats, to support a given view in a presentation about the ecosystem change 
  • Communicate questions, ideas, and intentions, and receive, interpret, understand, support, and respond to the ideas of others in preparing a report about ecosystem change 
  • Propose and defend a course of action on a multi-perspective social issue.
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Art of the Land content

Lesson Procedures/Teaching Strategies:

Students will use the resources from the Art of the Land Learning Object. This would include images of barkwork and basketry examples and to make the connections between the work and its source in the ecosystem.

  1. Introduce the subject by exploring the circular nature of seasonal activities and preparation and ecosystem management in Aboriginal cultures. For example, the act of preparation was important to survival. The preserving of fish, fruits, nuts, seeds, and medicines in the summer was just as important as the winter activity itself for survival. Preparation for spring was done in winter; for summer, in spring; for fall, in summer; and for winter, in the fall. The circular view worked like a well-oiled wheel. 
  2. The class will be divided into groups. Each group will select a gallery image of a selection of basketry or barkwork to identify the source of the environmental material (the tree) used to produce the specific work.
  3. The teacher will present the names of 4 specific trees that are used in the production of barkwork and basketry that are culturally relevant to Aboriginal people The students will Identify 4 different tree species:
    • Brown Ash
    • Birch
    • Cedar
    • Spruce 
  4. Students will research Wolastoqey landforms and chose a specific tree and compile research, display evidence and information from various sources. 
  5. Students will locate the habitat, identify the species, identify the common and scientific names, and the genus of a tree. Identify wood type, whether the tree is persistent (conifer) or deciduous. 
  6. Students identify the landform area habitat, shape, size, leaf, bark. The student can use photographs, drawings, samples, charts, poster, etc.

Extension Activities

The teacher can generate this into several additional projects:

  1. Differentiate various uses of a tree, the impact on Aboriginal culture from pre-European contact to current Aboriginal use.
    • Environmental
    • Utilitarian
    • Economic
    • Medicinal
    • Aesthetic 
  2. Use of field trip to a forest ecosystem 
  3. Invite an aboriginal person to the classroom to demonstrate the making of bark or basket container 
  4. Invite an Aboriginal person to the classroom to explain various ways in which natural population are kept in equilibrium, and relate this equilibrium to the resource limits of an ecosystem. In other words, explain the importance of the connection between the Aboriginal People to Mother Earth.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
Use standard performance-based assessment tools: research and presentation. Recommended criteria:

  • demonstrated understanding of connection between the environment and social issues 
  • demonstrated understanding of biodiversity 
  • demonstrated understanding of Wolastoqey culture and respect for eco-systems

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Web-Based Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 10

Subject: Science

Lesson Title: Nature Based Art

Lesson Description: Collect and analyse resources in the ecosystem to enhance understanding of cultural diversity and sustainability of ecosystems. Natural materials subsequently used to produce original works of art.

Time Required: 4 x 60 minute classes

Curriculum Outcomes: propose a course of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account human and environmental needs.  explain various ways in which natural populations are kept in equilibrium, and relate this equilibrium to the resource limits of an ecosystem  explain how biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to its sustainability  analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem  plan changes to, predict the effects of, and analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem  Read More

Section One: Project/Lesson Overview

Grade: 10

Subject: Science

Lesson Title: Nature Based Art

Lesson Description: Collect and analyse resources in the ecosystem to enhance understanding of cultural diversity and sustainability of ecosystems. Natural materials subsequently used to produce original works of art.

Time Required: 4 x 60 minute classes

Curriculum Outcomes:

  • propose a course of action on social issues related to science and technology, taking into account human and environmental needs. 
  • explain various ways in which natural populations are kept in equilibrium, and relate this equilibrium to the resource limits of an ecosystem 
  • explain how biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to its sustainability 
  • analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem 
  • plan changes to, predict the effects of, and analyse the impact of external factors on an ecosystem 
  • select, compile, and display evidence and information from various sources, in different formats, to support a given view in a presentation about the ecosystem change 
  • communicate questions, ideas, and intentions, and receive, interpret, understand, support, and respond to the ideas of others in preparing a report about ecosystem change 
  • propose and defend a course of action on a multi-perspective social issue. 
  • gain a greater appreciation and understanding of Wolastoqiyik and their history, culture, and conditions

Section Two: Project/Lesson Implementation

Equipment/Materials Required: Access to Art of the Land Learning Object content
Rocks, paints, brushes

Lesson Procedures/ Teaching Strategies:

  1. Introduce subject by exploring the web site, Koluskap: Stories from Wolastoqiyik (url below) 
  2. Have students examine the Art of the Land Learning Object content. Discuss the designs and make the connections between the materials and designs and the ecosystem. 
  3. Present the web site, Wolastoqiyik: Portrait of a People (url below) to the study and to examine and research the photographic journey for Wolastoqey designs 
  4. Wolastoqiyik have used painting for centuries for several reasons:
    a. As a way of recording events and leaving or sending messages
    b. As way of distinguishing one group from another
    c. Cave and rock paintings (Pictographs and Petroglyphs) 
  5. The class will participate in a field trip in search for rocks to paint. Teachers and students should offer tobacco to Mother Earth whenever something is taken from the environment. 
  6. Present information on how rocks are original material from Mother Earth and are important to Aboriginal people. The students will know that rocks are a symbol of stability. Wolastoqiyik use rocks for many reasons:
    a. Grandfathers are rocks from the river bank. These rocks are used for Sweatlodges. They bring the spirits of the grandfathers. Three hours before the Sweatlodge begins the rocks are heated hot enough to turn red. A certain number of grandfathers are brought into the lodge. Water is poured on the hot rocks to create steam. This serves as purification for those in the Sweat lodge.
    b. Rocks with beautiful designs, special encouraging messages can be given as gifts. 
  7. Note to students that, “symbols”, as we know them today, were not simply “put on”. This was an activity done by medicine people. Ceremonies, songs, and healings were put on scrolls for future medicine people. The practice was extended to stones, as well; whether chipped in or painted on. Art, as it is called today, had a spiritual purpose. 
  8. As activity progresses, also initiate a discussion concerning cultural appropriation of motifs and symbols. Talk about the pros and cons of using elements from another culture in creating contemporary works. 
  9. Using the web site, class discussions, and other research as inspiration, have students paint their rocks with traditional designs.

Suggested Assessment Strategies:
The students will be assessed based on their research, and presentation.

Section Three: Project/Lesson Resources

Supplementary Resources:
http://website.nbm-mnb.ca/Koluskap/index.php  
http://www.gnb.ca/0007/Heritage/virtual_exibition/Portraits/Welcome.htm  

Disclaimer: The recommended web-resources included here have been scrutinized for their grade and age appropriateness; however, contents on links on the Internet change continuously. It is advisable that teachers preview all links before recommending them to students.

Extensions: The teacher can generate this to several projects:

1. Differentiate various uses of rocks.
• Environmental; ceremonies
• Utilitarian; building around the home
• Economic; selling rocks, birthstones
• Medicinal; therapeutic, rocks slow us down so we can gather our thoughts.
• Aesthetic; gifts
2. Use of field trip to the river
3. Invite an Wolastoqew person to the classroom to demonstrate Wolastoqey designs
4. Invite an Wolastoqew person to explain the importance connection between Aboriginal People to Mother Earth.


© 2007, New Brunswick Museum. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

Art of the Land Learning Object is designed for students and educators to meet the following objectives:

  • assess and apply complex image development techniques
  • produce an original body of artwork that integrates information from a variety of sources to convey personal meaning
  • create artwork that communicates intentions
  • analyse and use complex visual relationships, processes, and content, making subtle discriminations
  • explain how biodiversity of an ecosystem contributes to its sustainability
  • select, compile, and display evidence and information from various sources, in different formats, to support a given view in a presentation about ecosystem change
  • communicate questions, ideas, and intentions, and receive, interpret, understand, support, and respond to the ideas of others in preparing a report about ecosystem change
  • investigate how artistic and literary expression reflects the following aspects of Canadian identity: landscape, climate, history, people-citizenship, and related challenges and opportunities
    portray their personal understanding of Canadian identity
  • analyse the factors that contribute to the perception of self and the development of a world view
  • explain why cultures develop various expressions of material and non-material culture
  • give precise instructions, follow directions accurately, and respond thoughtfully to complex questions
  • use writing and other ways of representing to: extend ideas and experiences, reflect on their feelings, values, and attitudes, describe and evaluate their learning processes and strategies
  • demonstrate commitment to crafting pieces of writing and other representations

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