Students investigate settlement food traditions, kitchen tools and cooking methods transferred from Europe to Canada. Then they prepare dishes using traditional recipes, tools and ingredients.

Class Discussion: Foods Then and Now
Ask students to brainstorm and list names of foods consumed on the Canadian frontier that are still consumed today (e.g. bread, biscuits, roast beef and pork, fresh berries, jams, preserves, sausages, smoked meats, stews, soups, maple syrup, pancakes, cheese, butter).
Students should then brainstorm traditional foods that are readily accessible in their region, and reflect on the following:
Do we have more or less variety in our diet than the pioneers? Why?
Compare family customs for roasting meat (cover on or off, seasonings), stuffing (ingredients, seasoning), making gravy.
Does anyone smoke meat at home? Make maple syrup, create jam, stuff sausages?
What recipes are traditional in your family? How far back do they go (years, decades, centuries)?

Activity: Preparing a Traditional Pioneer Meal
Part 1: Recipe Search and Planning
Students p Read More

Students investigate settlement food traditions, kitchen tools and cooking methods transferred from Europe to Canada. Then they prepare dishes using traditional recipes, tools and ingredients.

Class Discussion: Foods Then and Now
Ask students to brainstorm and list names of foods consumed on the Canadian frontier that are still consumed today (e.g. bread, biscuits, roast beef and pork, fresh berries, jams, preserves, sausages, smoked meats, stews, soups, maple syrup, pancakes, cheese, butter).
Students should then brainstorm traditional foods that are readily accessible in their region, and reflect on the following:
Do we have more or less variety in our diet than the pioneers? Why?
Compare family customs for roasting meat (cover on or off, seasonings), stuffing (ingredients, seasoning), making gravy.
Does anyone smoke meat at home? Make maple syrup, create jam, stuff sausages?
What recipes are traditional in your family? How far back do they go (years, decades, centuries)?

Activity: Preparing a Traditional Pioneer Meal
Part 1: Recipe Search and Planning
Students plan a traditional menu by researching pioneer and settlement recipes and cookbooks from the Internet, school or public library and within their family.
Part 2: Food Artifact Research
Students examine artifacts found along the Little Bonnechere River in eastern Ontario that relate to food preparation in early Canada.
Part 3: Meal Preparation and Serving
Students prepare, serve and eat their chosen dishes in a dishes in a traditional manner as possible.


© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.

Student Name: ___________________

SUMMARY
Part 1: RECIPE RESEARCH AND PLANNING: Step back in time. Let your inner investigator take over as you examine historic recipes and cookbooks to learn what and how pioneers cooked on Canada’s frontier. Then choose a traditional recipe you would like to make.
Part 2: FOOD ARTIFACT RESEARCH: Go back in time once more to examine recently recovered farm artifacts from along the Little Bonnechere River near present-day Algonquin Park in Ontario. Learn more about the kitchen utensils, dishes and cutlery used by local cooks about 150 years ago.
Part 3: MEAL PREPARATION AND SERVING: Prepare your dish and share a traditional meal with classmates.


Part 1: RECIPE RESEARCH AND PLANNING
Refer to the traditional recipes in this learning object. You can also research early Canadian cookbooks and recipes by using the Internet and your school or community library. If available, study family recipes that have been passed down through the generations. Answer the following questions in your notebook.

1 a) What sorts of foods do you prepare using a recipe? Read More

Student Name: ___________________

SUMMARY
Part 1: RECIPE RESEARCH AND PLANNING: Step back in time. Let your inner investigator take over as you examine historic recipes and cookbooks to learn what and how pioneers cooked on Canada’s frontier. Then choose a traditional recipe you would like to make.
Part 2: FOOD ARTIFACT RESEARCH: Go back in time once more to examine recently recovered farm artifacts from along the Little Bonnechere River near present-day Algonquin Park in Ontario. Learn more about the kitchen utensils, dishes and cutlery used by local cooks about 150 years ago.
Part 3: MEAL PREPARATION AND SERVING: Prepare your dish and share a traditional meal with classmates.


Part 1: RECIPE RESEARCH AND PLANNING
Refer to the traditional recipes in this learning object. You can also research early Canadian cookbooks and recipes by using the Internet and your school or community library. If available, study family recipes that have been passed down through the generations. Answer the following questions in your notebook.

1 a) What sorts of foods do you prepare using a recipe?

b) What foods do you make without a recipe? How did you learn how to make these dishes?

c) Do you think all pioneer cooks used cookbooks? Why or why not?

2 a) In pioneer cookbooks were recipes published in the same format as they are in more recent times?

b) What format was used for indicating measurements in traditional recipes? Were measurements always used? Why or why not?

c) Were oven temperatures indicated in early recipes? Why or why not?

3. How do the ingredients of traditional recipes differ from those in dishes we prepare and serve today?

4. Why were sections such as Useful Hints, Simple Cures, and Food for the Sick often found in pioneer cookbooks?

5. Choose from the recipes you have found to plan a class meal. Ideas:
- meat: stew, roast, sausages, smoked, fried
- potatoes: scalloped, pancakes, hash, fried
- salads: coleslaw, potato, beet, greens
- vegetables: onions, parsnips, beets, peas, cabbage, carrots, turnips, asparagus, tomatoes, beans
- desserts: biscuits, puddings, doughnuts, fritters, custard, fruit
- condiments: pickles, relish, sauerkraut
- preserves: jam, jelly, stewed fruit

Part 2: FOOD ARTIFACT RESEARCH
Refer to the images of the food and cooking artifacts included in this learning object. Answer the following questions in your notebook.

1. What is the major difference between the kitchens of yesterday and today?

2. See Image 1: Stove
Most pioneer food was prepared using a traditional cast-iron cookstove.
a) What fuel was used to fire these implements?
b) How would this affect traditional cooking habits in summer versus winter?
c) What are some of the other challenges and benefits of cooking on a cast-iron cookstove?

3. See Image 2: Utensils
a) List the basic cooking utensils used by pioneers.
b) List the cooking utensils in your home or school kitchen.
c) How do these two lists compare?

4. See Image 3: Plate
a) Study the manufacturers’ marks of the dishes found in your home and school kitchens. Where were the majority of these manufactured?
b) How does this compare with the origin of the china used by early Canadian pioneers?
c) List several challenges of transporting glass and china overseas to Canada, circa 1850 and today.

Part 3: MEAL PREPARATION AND SERVING
Gather ingredients for your recipe, prepare the dish in the school kitchen and share a traditional meal with your classmates!


© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.

Part 1: RECIPE RESEARCH AND PLANNING

1 a) Various personal answers.
b) One can memorize a recipe, learn by improvising, learn from a family member.
c) No; they knew the recipes by heart, may not have been able to read, did not have the money for cookbooks and may not have had access to specific ingredients, variety of dishes were very basic.

2 a) No, ingredients were not listed separately, instructions were vague, grammar was often poor.
b) Quantities were vague in comparison to exact metric or imperial measurements found in modern-day cookbooks. Some recipes didn’t incorporate measurements at all: cooks would use quantities to reflect number of servings required or availability of ingredients.
c) Rarely, as early cookstoves had no temperature controls.

3. Ingredients were basic and reflected local supplies; various forms of animal fat (eg: suet, chicken fat) were used instead of precious butter.

4. Since the frontier was often without or far from medical help, it was very important for settlers to know how to treat injuries and illnesses using traditional remedies and ingredients.

Read More

Part 1: RECIPE RESEARCH AND PLANNING

1 a) Various personal answers.
b) One can memorize a recipe, learn by improvising, learn from a family member.
c) No; they knew the recipes by heart, may not have been able to read, did not have the money for cookbooks and may not have had access to specific ingredients, variety of dishes were very basic.

2 a) No, ingredients were not listed separately, instructions were vague, grammar was often poor.
b) Quantities were vague in comparison to exact metric or imperial measurements found in modern-day cookbooks. Some recipes didn’t incorporate measurements at all: cooks would use quantities to reflect number of servings required or availability of ingredients.
c) Rarely, as early cookstoves had no temperature controls.

3. Ingredients were basic and reflected local supplies; various forms of animal fat (eg: suet, chicken fat) were used instead of precious butter.

4. Since the frontier was often without or far from medical help, it was very important for settlers to know how to treat injuries and illnesses using traditional remedies and ingredients.

Part 2: FOOD ARTIFACT RESEARCH

1. Preparing meals in pioneer kitchens was much more labour-intensive. There were no fridges, ovens, stovetops, microwaves or other timesaving appliances back then! Meals often took overnight or several days to prepare.

2 a) Wood.
b) When in use, a cookstove would heat the house, making it unbearable on hot days. A summer kitchen was often constructed so that cooking and meal serving could be done under a separate roof without adding heat to the main house.
c) Challenges: consistent temperature control; limited space.
Benefits: ready fuel supply; economical; slow cooking was very tasty; if stove was hot, cooking could be very fast.

3 a) Knives, forks, wooden and metal scoops and spoons, whetstone, corkscrew, whisk.
b) Various personal answers; more specialized utensils include egg slicer, garlic press, citrus zester, spatula and peeler.
c) Pioneer list is much shorter; greater variety of items, materials and styles available today.

4 a) Various personal answers.
b) The European pioneers brought their china with them from their homeland of England.
c) Pioneers would have carefully packed their china and glassware for the overseas journey via ship, then overland by horse and cart/sleigh to their new wilderness homes.


© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.

Pare, core and chop one-half dozen sour apples; dry bread in the oven until crisp, then roll; butter a deep dish and place in it a layer of crumbs and apples alternately with spice, and one-half cup of beef suet chopped fine; pour in one-half pint of sweet milk, and bake till nicely browned; serve with hard sauce.

Pare, core and chop one-half dozen sour apples; dry bread in the oven until crisp, then roll; butter a deep dish and place in it a layer of crumbs and apples alternately with spice, and one-half cup of beef suet chopped fine; pour in one-half pint of sweet milk, and bake till nicely browned; serve with hard sauce.


@ 1877, The Home Cook Book, Library and Archives Canada. All Rights Reserved.

Five eggs, one pint milk, four tablespoons flour, four apples grated; bake one hour and a quarter. Serve with sweetened cream or pudding sauce.

Five eggs, one pint milk, four tablespoons flour, four apples grated; bake one hour and a quarter. Serve with sweetened cream or pudding sauce.


@ 1877, The Home Cook Book, Library and Archives Canada. All Rights Reserved.

One brick loaf, wet it with boiling water, say one pint, four eggs, little salt, and one quart of berries. Boil one and a half hours. Serve with wine sauce.

One brick loaf, wet it with boiling water, say one pint, four eggs, little salt, and one quart of berries. Boil one and a half hours. Serve with wine sauce.


@ 1877, The Home Cook Book, Library and Archives Canada. All Rights Reserved.

Slice them thick; or halve and divide them into two lengths; strew some salt and pepper, and sliced onions: add a little broth or a bit of butter. Simmer very slowly; before serving, if no butter was in before, put some in with a little flour.

Slice them thick; or halve and divide them into two lengths; strew some salt and pepper, and sliced onions: add a little broth or a bit of butter. Simmer very slowly; before serving, if no butter was in before, put some in with a little flour.


© 1861, The Canadian Housewife's Manual of Cookery, The Hamilton Spectator. All Rights Reserved.

Boil in milk till they are soft, then cut them lengthways into bits two or three inches long, and simmer in a white sauce, made of two spoonfuls of broth, a bit of mace, half cupful of cream, a bit of butter, and some flour, pepper, and salt. (Cut lengthwise first to boil.)

Boil in milk till they are soft, then cut them lengthways into bits two or three inches long, and simmer in a white sauce, made of two spoonfuls of broth, a bit of mace, half cupful of cream, a bit of butter, and some flour, pepper, and salt. (Cut lengthwise first to boil.)


© 1861, The Canadian Housewife's Manual of Cookery, The Hamilton Spectator. All Rights Reserved.

Photo of parts of a cast-iron stove: leg, door and grate wrench.

Pieces of a cast-iron cookstove. The large door is hinged and ornately embossed. The curved leg (left) fit into a slot in the base of the stove and is decorated with an animal foot with four toes. The gate wrench was used to shake down coals in the stove.

Betty Biesenthal
Mark Kulas, Amanda Phanenhour, Luke Dickerson
1800 - 1950
Ontario, CANADA
ega-03a, 003. bob-clus-metal, mci-clus-metal
© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.


Utensils associated with meal preparation at Lafleur homestead.

This collection contains utensils associated with meals at the Lafleur homestead. The whetstone (left) could have been used to sharpen a carving knife; the knife and teaspoon were everyday cutlery; the inexpensive stamped larger spoon was used for serving; and the corkscrew for opening beverages. The handle fragment would have been affixed to a tang of a knife.

Betty Biesenthal
Mark Kulas, Amanda Phanenhour, Luke Dickerson
1800 - 1950
Ontario, CANADA
lfh-01a-001, lfh-clus-household
© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.


This white ironstone dinner plate has been partially reconstructed. It is representative of the most w

This white ironstone dinner plate (shown front and back) has been partially reconstructed. It is representative of the most widely used inexpensive dishes of the era.This example bears a mark with the Royal Arms and the description Imperial Ironstone China. It also indicates that it was made by W. & E. Corn, Burslem, Staffordshire, England. The raised leaves and fruit are features of the Grape pattern. The inclusion of the country of origin indicates that it was made post-1891.

Betty Biesenthal
Mark Kulas, Amanda Phanenhour, Luke Dickerson
1800 - 1950
Ontario, CANADA
bob-clus-plate
© 2007, Davenport Centre - Heritage Hall. All Rights Reserved.


Learning Objectives

* plan and prepare food products, using a variety of cultural traditions
* describe the relationship among family customs, traditions, and food, using current social science research methods
* demonstrate an understanding of our Canadian food heritage
* determine the contribution of cultural and regional foods in the development of our Canadian food heritage and culture
* demonstrate appropriate use of social science research methods in the investigation of food-related issues
* evaluate print and electronic resources on food and nutrition for validity, reliability, accuracy, bias, and relevance
* organize, interpret, and communicate the results of their inquiries, using a variety of methods (e.g., graphs, diagrams, oral presentations, newspaper articles, hypermedia presentations, and videos)
* demonstrate effective speaking and listening skills in a small group
* demonstrate an ability to perform a variety of roles in small groups (e.g., chair, recorder)
* demonstrate collaborative problem-solving, conflict resolution, and planning skills (e.g., relating to division of labour, time management, equal participation, taking responsibility for one’s component of the group’s activity), and be able to explain the need for these skills by referring to organizational theory

 

 

 


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