Born in Claremont, Ontario in 1877. Died in Ontario in 1917. Tom Thomson, who was mainly self-taught, worked in 1905 for the photoengraving firm Legg Brothers in Toronto. (He may at the time have taken evening courses at the Central Ontario School of Art and Design). Two years later, he worked as a commercial artist for the Grip Ltd. advertising agency in Toronto where he met J.E.H. MacDonald, Arthur Lismer (1911) and Frederick Varley (1912). In 1912, Thomson met his patron, Dr James McCallum. As a keen woodsman, he then worked as a fishing guide and forest ranger in Algonquin Park. From this time on, he worked at his painting constantly. He executed many studies in Algonquin Park, which he would then paint full size in his studio. In 1917, Thomson died tragically in a mysterious canoe accident. His career as an artist lasted only five years, but his art played a key role in the development of Canadian painting.

Works
In the Northland - 1915, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum Read More
Born in Claremont, Ontario in 1877. Died in Ontario in 1917. Tom Thomson, who was mainly self-taught, worked in 1905 for the photoengraving firm Legg Brothers in Toronto. (He may at the time have taken evening courses at the Central Ontario School of Art and Design). Two years later, he worked as a commercial artist for the Grip Ltd. advertising agency in Toronto where he met J.E.H. MacDonald, Arthur Lismer (1911) and Frederick Varley (1912). In 1912, Thomson met his patron, Dr James McCallum. As a keen woodsman, he then worked as a fishing guide and forest ranger in Algonquin Park. From this time on, he worked at his painting constantly. He executed many studies in Algonquin Park, which he would then paint full size in his studio. In 1917, Thomson died tragically in a mysterious canoe accident. His career as an artist lasted only five years, but his art played a key role in the development of Canadian painting.

Works
In the Northland - 1915, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
The Birch Grove, Autumn - 1915-1916, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton

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Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1900. Died in Chiswick, England in 1959. Marjorie Hughson Tozer, who began her studies by taking private classes with Edith Smith, studied at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design with Elizabeth Nutt, and then at the Ontario College of Art in Toronto.

Works
Windswept - circa 1927, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1900. Died in Chiswick, England in 1959. Marjorie Hughson Tozer, who began her studies by taking private classes with Edith Smith, studied at the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design with Elizabeth Nutt, and then at the Ontario College of Art in Toronto.

Works
Windswept - circa 1927, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Sheffield, England in 1881. Died in Unionville, Ontario in 1969. Frederick Varley RCA, who trained at the Sheffield School of Art, where he acquired a solid education between 1892 and 1900, and then at the Antwerp Royal Academy (1900–1902), was encouraged to settle in Canada by his friend Arthur Lismer. He immigrated in 1912 and found a job as a commercial artist. In 1918, he received a commission from the Canadian War Archives to illustrate the war in Europe. Varley, who became a member of the Group of Seven, began teaching at the Vancouver School of Decorative and Applied Arts in 1926. In 1933, together with MacDonald, he opened his own school, the BC College of Arts. Despite the large number of students who enrolled, the school had to close its doors two years later because of the Depression. Varley moved to Ottawa, where he worked as a portrait artist.

Works
Andante Cantabile (Howe Sound), Vancouver - circa 1929, oil on pannel, Edmonton Art Gallery
Born in Sheffield, England in 1881. Died in Unionville, Ontario in 1969. Frederick Varley RCA, who trained at the Sheffield School of Art, where he acquired a solid education between 1892 and 1900, and then at the Antwerp Royal Academy (1900–1902), was encouraged to settle in Canada by his friend Arthur Lismer. He immigrated in 1912 and found a job as a commercial artist. In 1918, he received a commission from the Canadian War Archives to illustrate the war in Europe. Varley, who became a member of the Group of Seven, began teaching at the Vancouver School of Decorative and Applied Arts in 1926. In 1933, together with MacDonald, he opened his own school, the BC College of Arts. Despite the large number of students who enrolled, the school had to close its doors two years later because of the Depression. Varley moved to Ottawa, where he worked as a portrait artist.

Works
Andante Cantabile (Howe Sound), Vancouver - circa 1929, oil on pannel, Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Listowel, Ontario in 1858. Died in Sainte-Pétronille, Quebec in 1938. Horatio Walker RCA began his artistic training with the photographers Notman and Fraser in Toronto between 1873 and 1876. He worked as a photographer in Rochester for a number of years. Towards the mid-1880s, he spent his winters in New York and his summers on Île d’Orléans. His highly idealized depictions of rural life in Quebec, showing hard-working peasants against a brilliant sky, are reminiscent of the French painters of the Barbizon School. Thanks to his style, Walker was able during his lifetime to build himself an enviable name among Canadian painters: his paintings fetched high prices and earned him distinctions. He became a member of the Canadian Art Club in 1908.

Works
Ploughing, the First Gleam of Dawn - 1900, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec
Born in Listowel, Ontario in 1858. Died in Sainte-Pétronille, Quebec in 1938. Horatio Walker RCA began his artistic training with the photographers Notman and Fraser in Toronto between 1873 and 1876. He worked as a photographer in Rochester for a number of years. Towards the mid-1880s, he spent his winters in New York and his summers on Île d’Orléans. His highly idealized depictions of rural life in Quebec, showing hard-working peasants against a brilliant sky, are reminiscent of the French painters of the Barbizon School. Thanks to his style, Walker was able during his lifetime to build himself an enviable name among Canadian painters: his paintings fetched high prices and earned him distinctions. He became a member of the Canadian Art Club in 1908.

Works
Ploughing, the First Gleam of Dawn - 1900, oil on canvas. Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Doon, Ontario in 1855. Died in the same village in 1936. Homer Watson RCA, who was self-taught, went to Toronto and worked in the studios of photographer William Notman in 1874–1875, where he met Lucius O’Brien, Henri Perré and John Arthur Fraser. He studied painting by copying other works at the Toronto Normal School. He was elected a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1882. He was initially influenced by the work of the British painters Thomas Gainsborough and John Constable, but developed an interest in rural life and the work of peasants. At the end of his life, his paintings in the impressionistic style were less successful.

Works
A Coming Storm in the Adirondacks - 1879, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Grand River Landscape at Doon Read More
Born in Doon, Ontario in 1855. Died in the same village in 1936. Homer Watson RCA, who was self-taught, went to Toronto and worked in the studios of photographer William Notman in 1874–1875, where he met Lucius O’Brien, Henri Perré and John Arthur Fraser. He studied painting by copying other works at the Toronto Normal School. He was elected a member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1882. He was initially influenced by the work of the British painters Thomas Gainsborough and John Constable, but developed an interest in rural life and the work of peasants. At the end of his life, his paintings in the impressionistic style were less successful.

Works
A Coming Storm in the Adirondacks - 1879, oil on canvas. The Montreal Museum of Fine Arts
Grand River Landscape at Doon - circa 1881, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Nova Scotia
The Red Oak - 1919, oil on canvas. Edmonton Art Gallery

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Born in Alternun, England in 1805. Died in Brantford, Ontario in 1887. Robert Whale RCA, who was born in Cornwall, demonstrated a natural talent for portraiture while still a very young man. He was sent to London to study at the National Gallery. At the time, he was influenced by the work of Joshua Reynolds. Whale emigrated to Canada in 1852. He was one of the founding members of the Ontario Society of Artists, in 1872. His body of work includes many landscapes painted in Ontario locations like Niagara Falls, Dundas and Hamilton.

Works
View of Hamilton - 1862, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton
Born in Alternun, England in 1805. Died in Brantford, Ontario in 1887. Robert Whale RCA, who was born in Cornwall, demonstrated a natural talent for portraiture while still a very young man. He was sent to London to study at the National Gallery. At the time, he was influenced by the work of Joshua Reynolds. Whale emigrated to Canada in 1852. He was one of the founding members of the Ontario Society of Artists, in 1872. His body of work includes many landscapes painted in Ontario locations like Niagara Falls, Dundas and Hamilton.

Works
View of Hamilton - 1862, oil on canvas. Art Gallery of Hamilton

© 2003, CHIN. All Rights Reserved.

Learning Objectives

The learner will:
  • Become familiar with some of the best known landscape painters in Canada and Russia (1860-1940)
  • Relate the experiences of landscape painters, their geography, and their era, to the style and elements in their work
  • Compare the life experiences of landscape painters in Russia and Canada working during the period 1860-1940

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